Thursday, July 2, 2020

Research / Describe Police Suicide in USA Stress in Policing - 2200 Words

Research and Describe Police Suicide in USA: Stress in Policing (Essay Sample) Content: Police Suicide in USA: Stress in PolicingNameInstitutionPolice Suicide in USA: Stress in PolicingIntroductionEvery year, several police officers commit suicide in the United States (U.S.). Most of them make this fatal choice when they face various work-related challenges and upheavals in family or personal relationships. Numerous factors such as poor nutrition, drug and substance abuse, intrusive thoughts, and traumatic experience usually affect their judgment and perceptions about life and suicide. This paper examines the issue of stress in policing. Specifically, the paper explores three selected cases of police suicide in the United States including Ashley Bryant, Scott Tracz, and Michael Ameris suicides. Additionally, the paper analyzes the indicators of stress that may lead to suicidal thoughts or attempts and measures of minimizing incidences of police suicide. Finally, the paper examines POPPA, an organization and part of the New York Police Department (NYPD) that assists the troubled officers.Cases of Sergeant Bryant, Officer Tracz, and Inspector AmeriThe death of Ashley Bryant, 44, in 2013 is one of the hundreds of cases of police suicides documented by the Badge of Life every year. Mr. Bryant, a former police detective, and a homicide sergeant died on December 16 in the hinterland of the Byron Bay after throwing himself off the Minyon Falls (Morrison, 2017). Before his death, Mr. Bryants doctors had diagnosed him with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and depression after witnessing the murder of his fellow constables Peter Addison and Robert Spears in 1995. He had also responded to numerous cases of suicide, murder, drowning, and other traumatic situations as part of his profession. Because of his condition, his psychologists advised that he should not work in the police unit. In 2012, his doctors treated him for alcohol addiction and PTSD and recommended that he was not fit for police force. He thought h e would receive a full superannuation and get a less stressful and traumatic job than police work (Morrison, 2017). Instead, he only received a partial superannuation. Since the police superannuation refused to give him a full hurt on duty pension, he could no longer cope with the level of stress he was experiencing. He decided to commit suicide.Before jumping off the Minyon Falls, Mr. Bryant called 000 and confessed that he was about to take his life. He requested the operator to record and play the call before the coroner for other police officers and their families not to undergo a similar experience (Morrison, 2017). Stressful and traumatic work experiences forced Mr. Bryant to kill himself. However, strict adherence to police welfare policies could have prevented Mr. Bryants death. According to the coroner, the medical officer of the police made a mistake by ruling officer Bryant fully fit for police job contrary to his personal doctors ruling.Another case of police suicide oc curred in Chicago in 2016. Scott Tracz, a novice Chicago police officer, shot himself in his girlfriends compound. The thirty-year-old Officer Tracz developed symptoms of withdrawal and sullenness after experiencing violence as an officer. According to Ark Maciaszek, his cousin, Mr. Tracz refused to seek help from the police departments Employee Assistance Program (EAP) because he feared losing his job. Following the release of a video showing a white officer shooting Laquan McDonald, a black teenager in 2015, the Chicagos police officers experienced an intensified pressure. In 2016, the number of killings in Chicago was 60% higher than Los Angeles and New York. Although Tracz had longed to become a sergeant and help others, the violence-prone Chicago Lawn district made him come face to face with violent crime. Working in an environment that accounted for 58% of the citys shootings and murder, Mr. Tracz could not cope. According to his cousin, he became more irritable and angry stra ining his relationship with his girlfriend. Following the traumatic and stressful work environment, Mr. Tracz shot himself inside a black sports car outside his girlfriends compound. Seeking help would have prevented Mr. Traczs death. However, stocking the departments with adequate resources such as clinicians counselors, and psychologists would eliminate the belief that seeking help may result in loss of job. If Mr. Tracz had shared his stress with the health professionals at the EAP, he would be alive today.Inspector Michael Ameri also formed part of the statistics of the numerous cases of police suicide in the United States. The NYPD commander shot himself on the head on Long Island Friday in 2016. Mr. Ameri committed suicide after the corruption grilling by the FBI that saw the Internal Affairs cops seize boxes of records (Schram, Cohen, Fredericks, 2016). The divorced father of one boy was the head of Highway District. Reports state that he feared that his career would be in j eopardy because the feds and the Internal Affairs Bureau (IAB) was investigating a scandal involving the unauthorized chaperons of the Orthodox Jewish Community members. The IAB raided his house in search of the escort logs and seized a two-year police escort files. He became distressed and felt the probe would jeopardize his profession (Schram et al., 2016). Although Roy Richter, the head of his union had reassured him that everything would be fine, the 44-year old Ameri could not deal with the stressful situation. Before the Jewish holidays, Mr. Ameri avoided the Jewish Orthodox Community and told his close friends that the probe was worrying him (Schram et al., 2016). According to his mother, Mr. Ameri was jovial two days to his death, and he did not show any signs of worry. However, fear gripped him because it was rumored that incitement and departmental conflicts would mar the probe. The police inspector was found dead in West Babylon on 13 May along the quiet street connecting the Bergen Point Golf Course. Since Mr. Ameri did not show any symptom of suicidal thoughts, nothing much could have been done to prevent him from killing himself.Warning Signs of Stress that May Lead to SuicideDeductive studies indicate that various psychological, biological, and social factors increase the risk of suicide. These factors may include changeable behavioral aspects such as drug and substance or unchangeable genetic factors such as suicidal family history. Undoubtedly, policing is a stressful profession hence prone to suicidal thoughts and attempts. Most officers respond to stressful and traumatic situations of death scenes, violence, and fatal accidents. Therefore, police officers are at higher risk of committing suicide than other professions. While traumatic experiences and PTSD are the common causes of police suicide, constant exposure to other low-level stressors such as work shift, arbitrary rules, huge workloads, policing culture, and erratic work schedule con tributes to suicide.It is, therefore, necessary to understand the warning signs of stress that may prompt an officer to commit suicide. According to Kulbarsh (2017), a stressed individual is likely to display following suicidal warning signs of stress: * Always talking or writing about or glorifying suicide or death * Giving verbal signs through remarks such as I cannot continue living, I wish I could die, and other suicidal phrases. * Withdrawal from family, colleagues, and friends * Displaying a sudden improvement of attitude or mood after being withdrawn or depressed. For example, the person may suddenly become happy, eat more food, or take his friends out. * Neglecting ones hygiene and appearance * Sudden and hostile behavioral changes including being argumentative, passive or subordinate, and hopeless * Asking a colleague or a friend to keep his or her working tools such as Gun and uniform * Displaying reckless behavior aimed at threatening his or her life and job or acting in a way that shows that death is what he or she wishes for * Registering unusually poor performance at work * Developing unusual interest in drugs and substances * Writing a will and putting things in order * Visiting or calling friends and relatives to wish them goodbye * Constantly promising to kill someone * Having trouble eating or sleeping * Developing sudden mood swings * Developing ways of committing suicideMeasures of Reducing Incidences of Suicide by Police OfficersUndoubtedly, the cumulative experiences of low-level stressors, PTSD, depression, and traumatic situations surrounding policing contribute greatly to police suicide. Therefore, there is need to establish mitigating measures that would consider all the factors leading to suicidal decisions. Ideally, suicide of the police is preventable. Following the increasing cases of police suicide, the will for preventing the tragedy is growing. However, the preventive measures put in place should give hope to the officers strug gling with suicidal thoughts after exposure to depression, violence, trauma, and anxiety.One such measure is putting strategies for improving the response to mental health issues such as extreme trauma and PTSD. However, this measure would be effective if the police department controls the impact of continuous exposure of the officers to cultural stressors and poor management and the stigma resulting from mental conditions within the work environment. By accounting for these factors, the law enforcement agencies address the environmental factors such as authoritative leadership, severe or painful working conditions, and erratic decision making by the managers that subject the officers to emotional torture (Roufa, 2017).Secondly, the policing sector needs to educate its staff and the se...

Monday, May 25, 2020

Midterm 3 History Essay - 8024 Words

There were 3 questions that I did not have the answer to. I’ve highlighted them in yellow. I apologize for the formatting, but the copy and paste job from Microsoft Word kinda screwed up. Feel free to format to your hearts content. Cheers! CC 302/CTI 310: Midterm Exam Short Answer Questions  · What was the position of the tribunes on the escalating conflict between Caesar, Pompey and the senate? What was Cicero’s position? o The tribunes were advocating for compromise with Caesar by offering him legal protection and military power. o Cicero was supporting the senate and Pompey and was in Rome stirring up trouble for the first Triumvirate by speaking out of ending Caesar’s Gallic command to prosecute him for his injustices†¦show more content†¦Caesar establishes Cleopatra as Queen of Egypt in place of her brother. He also has a bastard son with her, Ptolemy Caesar.  · Why (and where) did Cato the Younger kill himself? What is his postmortem reputation? o Cato the Younger went to Utica to kill himself. He committed suicide in protest of living underneath a tyrant (better dead than alive under a tyrant). o He was remembered as a hero of the Republic.  · At which battle did Caesar famously say: Veni, Vidi, Vici? o Caesar said â€Å"Veni, Vidi, Vici† after the Battle at Zela.  · Who did Caesar fight at the battle of Munda? What happened? Who survived? o Caesar fought the remaining sons of Pompey and the Pompeiian supporters at the Battle of Munda. o It was a bloodbath and a victory for Caesar. o Only Sextus Pompey, one of Pompey’s sons, survived.  · Against what enemy was Caesar planning a campaign after his return to Rome in 45 BC? o Caesar was planning a campaign against the Parthians after his return to Rome in 45 BC to obtain the standards lost by Crassus.  · Why did Caesar reform the calendar? Impact of this reform? o Caesar reformed the calendar because the Roman year and Solar year were three months apart and had poorly represented the seasons (Snow in July and hot in December). o This reform accurately depicted the relevant seasons.  · What was Caesar’sShow MoreRelatedEssay about Acct-212 Midterm Study Guide1080 Words   |  5 PagesACCT212 - Financial Accounting Midterm Exam Study Guide YOU MAY WANT TO PRINT THIS GUIDE. 1. The Midterm Exam is open book, open notes. The maximum time you can spend in the exam is 3 hours, 30 minutes. If you have not clicked the Submit For Grade button by then, you will be automatically exited from the exam. In the Midterm Exam environment, the Windows clipboard is disabled, so you will not be able to copy exam questions or answers to or from other applications. 2. You should click the SaveRead MoreThe Period Of Greek Art866 Words   |  4 PagesMidterm Throughout the times in Greek art, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods have changed overtime from the sculptures in the form, style, and symmetry. The Archaic period lasted from 700 to 500 BCE and the sculptures haven’t yet mastered in sculpting showing realism. Their style of sculpting was similar to the Egyptians in the way that they made the bodies of the sculptures rigid with both arms on their sides and with a foot stepped forward (Greek Archaic Art). By the end of the ArchaicRead MoreYolo1583 Words   |  7 Pages____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Course Title Course Code Pre- requisite Credits : : : : World Literature Lit 02 Lit 01 3 Units Vision-Mission Statement : Instructor : Email : Office : Consultation Hours: MWF Venue : Consultation Rm. I. Course Description: Socorro D. De Jesus, Ph.D. Associate Professor 1 General Education Faculty Rm, 2 ndRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of The Software Life Cycle Model914 Words   |  4 PagesC330 Midterm Tyler Morrison Indiana University Northwest Abstract This midterm answers the questions and problems as follows: 1. Discuss the software life cycle model. Your book defines several so you can use the suggestions to identify which one you will research further. Research and choose another life cycle model. What is it? Its advantages/disadvantages. What environment is it used in. 2. Research and discuss the agile process. Advantages/disadvantages. When is this process most beneficialRead MoreA Report On The Classroom1335 Words   |  6 Pagessome more. I was also able to observe the second teacher that I was required to do. It was another history class during third period. So, I got to see them do a debate on Universal Health Care System. We also talked about where I had been parking and it is a good area, plus I am not taking another teacher’s parking space. So no drama on that. Though sometimes, it is hard to get out because I stay until 3:00pm and parents are coming to pick up the elementary students then so twice I have been blockedRead MorePhilosophy Syllabus1562 Words   |  7 PagesPhilippines BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Gov. Pablo Borbon Main Campus I Batangas City COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURE AND FINE ARTS GENERAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Second Semester, AY 2015-2016 COURSE SYLLABUS HUM 102 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY 3 Units Prerequisite: None UNIVERSITY VISION A University which shapes a global Filipino imbued with moral courage nurtured through values and excellent education. UNIVERSITY MISSION Batangas State University commits to develop productive citizensRead MoreAn Implementation Of A Community Intervention812 Words   |  4 Pagespolitical involvement in the black community. Through the election of the first African American president statistics have shown how important the youth vote, especially the black youth vote, has made a great impact and shaped politics. In the past 2014 Midterm election the turnout of the youth vote (age 18-29) was the lowest in the past 4 decades (The Center of Information and Research and Civic Learning and Engagement, 2015). This intervention will seek to engage in a discourse with the Black youth communityRead MoreSoc 300 Midterm Exam ( 40 40 Correct Answers )8394 Words   |  34 PagesSOC 300 Midterm Exam ( 40 40 Correct Answers ) Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser For More Courses and Exams use this form ( ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar ( ) Question 1 Why is it so difficult for the poorest societies to get to a foothold on theRead MoreThe Assessment Data Of The Miles College Self Study777 Words   |  4 Pagesfacilitators of learning for all students in P-12 schools (IR, p. 3). . The Professional Education Unit at Miles College prepares candidates, at the initial level, in ten Alabama State Department of Education approved program of study areas. The unit programs of study are: Biology Education, Chemistry/Chemistry Education, Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education, English Language Arts Education, General Science Education, History/Social Science Education, Mathematics/Mathematics Education, Music/MusicRead MoreThe Lewinsky Scandal, 19981491 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican economy benefited greatly and financial stability became more of a reality for many. However Clinton’s presidential legacy is also marked by his affair with Monica Lewinsky and his impeachment. He had become the second sitting president in history to be impeached by the House of Representatives. The Lewinsky affair shocked the public and the media along with the right wing were keen to see Clintons demise. Washington became even more vicious as political opponents of the President pursed

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Rhetorical Analysis ive been to the mountaintop - 1624 Words

Rhetorical Analysis: I’ve Been to the Mountaintop Martin Luther King, Jr. was the predominant leader of the Civil Rights Movement to end racial discrimination and segregation in the latter half of the twentieth century. As a world-renowned spokesperson advocating nonviolent protest, many of his speeches were centered on peaceful ways to change the unfair treatment and segregation of blacks. His hope was to use these methods of nonviolent protest so that one day all of God’s children, whites and blacks included, would live, and treat each other, as equals. On April 3, 1968, he delivered what would be his final speech, I’ve Been to the Mountaintop, in Memphis, Tennessee, at the Mason Temple (Church of God in Christ Headquarters).†¦show more content†¦He explains to his audience that when the Pharaoh wanted to prolong the period of slavery, all he had to do was keep the slaves fighting among themselves. But when the slaves came together, that was the beginn ing of getting out of slavery. Thus, the civil rights community must stay unified in order to achieve what they want. Still in the past, King next reminds his audience of their success in Birmingham, Alabama. Through these remarks, King restores their faith, telling them that they had done it once, so there was no reason why they couldn’t successfully protest again. To explain his intentions for how they should go about protesting this time, King first deems it necessary to reassure his audience of their First Amendment privileges that they should receive for living in the United States. To do so, he uses the rhetorical device of repetition for the third time by saying that â€Å"Somewhere I [he] read† about certain freedoms that all citizens should be granted—multiple indirect references to the Constitution’s Bill of Rights. At the end, he says, â€Å"Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right to protest for right† (King 4), bri lliantly adding an antanaclasis that further embellishes the rhythmic manner of his speech. He is simply appealing to logos again in this instance; by recalling words from one of the most important documents in the country’s history, he is providing factual justification for the nonviolent protests he is about to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Drinking Water Human Right Or Commodity Essay - 1683 Words

Drinking Water: Human Right or Commodity? Water, like food, is a necessity for human life that is used for many purposes such as agricultural, industrial, and domestic systems. While water is a common element around the world not all of it is clean and able to be consumed or used by humans. With only a percentage of the world’s water being clean and the use of water increasing, the availability of water around the world has become a common issue in the developing and even the developed world. This may be a smaller problem in areas close to clean water sources compared to areas far from a clean water source but, the availability of water is not strictly based on location, it also depends on the specific political and social needs and issues of the area as well. These all become issues that must be accounted for when deciphering whether water is a basic human right or a commodity and what action must be taken to aid the developing water systems in community’s that lack th em. 1. Human Right or Commodity? Whether water is a human commodity or basic human right has become a large problem around the world while dealing with the availability of clean drinking water in developing societies. If water is either recognized to be a right or a commodity, many complications come to these developing countries in several social and political aspects. A human right is a freedom and a right that belongs to everyone in the world. Water as a human right gives everyone the right to water asShow MoreRelatedAffirmative Debate: Acces to Drinking Water Essay676 Words   |  3 Pages000 children die every day from water related diseases. In fact, more lives have been lost after World War II due to contaminated water than from all forms of violence and war. This humanitarian catastrophe has been allowed to fester for generations. We must stop it.† [Herald Tribune] It is because I agree with Mikhail Gorbachev, that I must affirm today’s resolution. Resolved: Access to drinking water ought to be valued as a human right instead of as a commodity. The value I will be upholdingRead MoreWe Need to Slow Down Our Freshwater Consumption1251 Words   |  5 Pagesoutpaced the rate of human population growth. There is a need to slow down the rate of water consumption before it creates a huge problem. People can conserve water through the use of modern efficient electronic devices such as digital water meters at homes and industries and rain-dew irrigation system on farmlands to make water wastage by more than half. Governments around the world need to work on legislation to promote and educate its citizens on efficient use of fresh drinking water and the consequencesRead MoreDeveloping Effective Water Sector Policies1227 Words   |  5 Pagesiii) Policy Issues Developing effective water sector policies in most countries has been a hard task for the policy makers involved. This has been because of its unique physical properties, the complex economic characteristics and the important cultural features that come with the resource that distinguishes it from other natural resources. Other than this, water resource management has continued to present a lot of complicated administrative issues, and this is because it involves many considerationsRead MoreWater Is The Most Important Natural Source1255 Words   |  6 Pages1.0 Introduction Water is the most important natural source. There has been activism all over the world to attain governed pricing mechanisms and market transactions due to its mobility and centrality to sustenance of human life. The physical, conceptual, and social plasticity aspects of water as a resource create uncertainty with regard to handling and thus posing critical questions in response to use and management. In the last three-four decades, world’s economic institutions such as World BankRead MoreNotes On Commodities And Consumption1728 Words   |  7 Pages Commodities and Consumption There are many commodities in our life that plays an important part in our daily consumption. Such commodities link us to the people around the world who produce these for us. The purpose of this assignment is to choose a produced outside of the US, and write an essay by conducting research using sources such as use information directly from the store or company, academic articles/books, the Internet and personal interviews. The essay will answer questions about the locationRead MoreWater Is The Most Important Natural Source955 Words   |  4 PagesWater is the most important natural source. There has been activism all over the world to attain governed pricing mechanisms and market transactions due to its mobility and centrality to sustenance of human life. The physical, conceptual, and social plasticity aspects of water as a resource create uncertainty with regard to handling and thus posing critical questions in response to use and management. In the last three-four decades, global economic institutions such as the World Bank and InternationalRead MoreProblem with Privatization of Water in the Documentary Blue Gold: World Water Wars by Sam Bozo745 Words   |  3 PagesBlue Gold: World Water Wars I choose to watch the documentary by Sam Bozo â€Å"Blue Gold: World Water Wars†. In this movie author presents the problem with privatization of water, the corruption affiliated with water companies and the problems that arise around the world because of water scarcity. We all know that, where there is water, there must be life. Our planet is the only known planet with life and water on it, that is why we look for it in space. The drinking water is only three percent of theRead MoreThe Privatization Of Municipal And Bottled Water Sources2149 Words   |  9 PagesPrivatization of Water Different societies around the world have different moral codes, but the importance of water is valued and respected everywhere. Most if not all societies agree with the principles of human dignity and equality for all people. Water is the basis for human survival therefore, it can be the foundation for solidarity amongst societies and people. The ethical frameworks of utilitarianism, consequentialist, intrinsic, theistic, ecological, and water management are all examples ofRead MoreWater Management Practices : Privatization Of Municipal And Bottled Water Sources Using A Justice Oriented Ethical Framework2438 Words   |  10 Pagesimportance of water is valued and respected everywhere. Most if not all societies agree with the principles of human dignity and equality for all people. Water is the basis for human survival, which can unite and create solidarity between civilizations. Instead, water is dividing civilizations, causing tension over the precious resource. The primarily focus of this paper is on analyzing water management practices, specifically exploring privatization of municipal and bottled water sources usingRead MoreThe Prevention of Water Contamination: Mission Impossible?1503 Words   |  7 PagesWater is one of the most vital components of human life. It is a necessity, a precious resource that humans need to live, that is taken for granted every day. There is no possible way for life to be sustained on Earth without water – it just cannot happen. The human body itself is composed of almost eighty percent water: almost 95 percent of the human brain is water. It is common knowledge that pure water is the best water – for humans, and for plants and animals. Regardless of this piece of knowledge

Defining Politics and Democracy Essay - 1572 Words

Defining Politics and Democracy The word Politics is derived from the Greek word for city-state, Polis. Corporate, religious, academic and every other polity, especially those constrained by limited resources, contain dominance hierarchy and therefore politics. Politics is most often studied in relation to the administration of governments. Politics is the process and method of gaining or maintaining support for public or common action. Although it is generally applied to governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions including corporate, academic, and religious. Political science is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of†¦show more content†¦Karl Marx sees politics as merely the orgainised power of one class for oppressing another while Kate Millett sees politics as power-structured relationships,arrangements whereby one grop of persons is contolled by another. This shows how different people feel about politics and it shows that everyone has a differnt view on what politics means. My view is that politics is how different parties believe the county should be run, how different political views change how different people feel on politics, e.g. The old labour party had the views for the working man and the unions, and the conservatives was for the business man, but now the new labour party has the same views as the conservatives, making it almost impossible to tell the difference between the parties. This is called Convergence. There are many political parties in Britain but throughout the whole of England, there are three dominant political parties : Labour, Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. These are expanded on in the regions by the addition of the Scottish National Party in Scotland, Plaid Cymru in Wales and the various Unionist parties and Sein Fein of Northern Ireland. In terms of electoral success, Britain has frequently been referred as a two-party state; similar to America. In termsShow MoreRelated Americas Democracy Essay1091 Words   |  5 PagesAmericas Democracy The United States of America is a republic, or representative democracy. Democracy, a word that comes to us from Greek, literally means the people rule (Romance, July 8). This broad definition leaves unanswered a few important details such as who are the people, how shall they rule, and what should they rule on (July 8). Defining the answers to those questions means defining a model for a democratic system. William E. Hudson defines four such models in his book American DemocracyRead MoreExploring the Differences Between Liberal Democratic, Authoritarian and Totalitarian Political Systems1246 Words   |  5 PagesDemocratic, Authoritarian and Totalitarian Political Systems Defining political systems is a difficult thing to do as no single system is completely static, they often change dependant on things like war and trends in regimes, such as the recent insurgence in ‘liberal democracies’ means that the classifications of systems changes over time. The British Westminster system is considered to be a ‘liberal democracy’ however in the Second World War there were several powers exercisedRead Moreâ€Å"Democracy Is Popularly Conceived As Government Of The1547 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Democracy is popularly conceived as government of the people, for the people and by the people† (Hassan, 2003). The term is used to describe a political process by which all citizens and the nation have a direct involvement in the creation of running a country and creating the policies within it. Evidently it can be argued that political apathy is a serious threat to democracy directly. Contradictory to this representative democracy selects applicable individuals to allow them to be a voice forRead MoreDoes Religion Foster Democracy?1383 Words   |  6 PagesDoes religion foster democracy? This question has plagued many political scientists for decades. Carsten Ancker examines the theories of Samuel P. Huntington in her work â€Å"Religion and Democracy: A Worldwide Comparison.† In 1991, Huntington hypothesized that religion led to the institutionalization of democracy, especially Christianity. Huntington referenced the rise of democracies in the 70’s tha t were related to the spread of religion as well as earlier, when Protestantism was popular. In his bookRead MoreThe Status of Democracy in Thailand1626 Words   |  6 Pagesinvolved with politics, since then politics affairs not only belong to politicians or the ruler. As people have more participation in government’s projects, they started to challenge politicians and even the government and divided into two political movement groups: National United Front of Democracy against Dictatorship (UDD) as known as The Red shirt group and People’s Alliance for the Democracy (PAD) as known as The Yellow shirt group. It is ironic that both groups claim for democracy while theyRead More Communitarianism vs. Cosmopolitanism Essay1147 Words   |  5 PagesNormative Theories of Politics - Contrasting Cosmopolitan and Communitarian Approaches When looking at normative theories of politics, the main distinction is between cosmopolitanism and communitarianism. In this essay the term community shall refer to political communities, or more specifically, states. It is important to note that these political communities have been defined territorially, and not necessarily by culture, although this is taken for granted to an extent by communitarianismRead MoreNationalism and Democracy Essay1166 Words   |  5 Pageshorrors caused by nationalism seem to be at the opposite end of the spectrum from the promising ideal of democracy. As Ghia Nodia pointed out, many analysts view nationalism as â€Å"fundamentally antidemocratic† (3). What these anti-nationalists fail to realize is that nationalism has also called force heroism and even sacrifice throughout history. Numerous people have risked their lives to restore democracy and civil rights in their nations, when they could easily have chosen comfortable exile elsewhere.Read MoreModern Democratic Governments 920 Words   |  4 PagesAccording to the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy index map for 2012, nearly half of the world’s population was living under democratic governments. Democracy is spreading throughout the world, although growth has slowed, and many nations have drawn their political inspiration from the United States of America, which was one of the first to govern under a constitutional republic in the modern era. One of the more unique features of our government, which other countries have attempted to adoptRead MoreThe Key Characteristics Of Lasswell s Policy Orientation1591 Words   |  7 Pages ‘Policy Dismantling’ by Andrew Jordan, Michael W. Bauer and Christoffer Green-Pedersen, and lastly Nick Turnbull’s ‘Harold lasswell’s â€Å"problem orientation† for the policy sciences’. As per a literature review I will begin by first outlining the defining characteristics of L asswell’s policy orientation, then providing a summary of the four identified articles, after which a comparison and contrast will occur respective to each characteristic outlined. One of the aforementioned characteristics ofRead MoreThe Political System Of Democracy Essay1697 Words   |  7 Pagessystem of Democracy that has existed since the days of ancient Greece. When applied to the United States of America, two forms of Democracy are presented that clash together in their principles. This is of course, Elite Democracy and Popular Democracy. Through the analysis of the process of the Electoral College, the actions of politically charged people, and various reforms throughout history, we can see how Popular Democracy pales in comparison to the superior philosophy of Elite Democracy. Before

Reflection on the Research Process for Learning - myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theReflection on the Research Process for Learning Experince. Answer: This essay is going to reflect my learning from the research process that has been conducted by me in due course of the study. A research process is indeed helpful to develop expertise and cognitive idea pertaining to a topic. Hence, it has helped me develop a clearer and fathomer understanding of the learning that I have been studying for years. Through the research I have tried to develop my understanding thus demonstrating my learning arena. The research paper was about the cyber attacks and the malpractices through the cyber cells. In this matter of fact, it can be stated that the specific understanding pertaining to overall cyber crime and the global movement has been highly inducing for me in its basic terms. Before reflecting deep into the topic, I would rather prefer to develop my idea on LE (Learning Experience). Learning Experience: Learning experience is an interaction, course or a program, in which learning takes place- irrespective of the setting (traditional or non- conventional). The traditional setting for the learning is nothing but the class rooms, schools or other academic institutions. On the contrary, the non-conventional learning experience is conducted through non- institutionalized process. This is a case that has to be taken into certain account whether an individual wants to focus on the specific learning setting. However, standing on 2017, the non-conventional setting or the non- institutionalized setting is prioritized. As a matter of fact, this has to be taken into certain account that empirical understanding has been quite effective in developing practical concepts and ideas on any area of subjects for a learner. This is how, in modern study, the empirical learning experience is given priority. Since this is highly practicality oriented process, the entire concept has to be developed through the basic concept of learning. Value of Learning Experience: Followings are the values of learning experience: It develops practical concept on any subject It helps create professional conceptualization of the subject of study It involves fun learning process thus engaging maximum number of the learners. It develops the potential to choose the behavioral concept associated with the learning activities It helps change the individual behavior and his or her tendency to encapsulate the entire knowledge of the subject through practical implementation Service of learning Experience: In this concept it can be stated that the specific understanding has to be taken into certain consideration pertaining to the effective understanding of how the specific course would be settled. The procurement of specific understanding has to be developed through effective consideration of the learning method. However, it needs to be taken into certain account that the service of learning experience is quite helpful for the assimilation of the learning process and thought generation through practical implementation. In my case, I have been highly benefited with different segments for the specification of the issues where I would be developing my knowledge in compliance with my practical understanding. Course: In the course, my subject understanding on cyber security would help me develop a cognitive idea. It would further help me increase my social awareness as it has direct involvement in my social understanding. As a matter of fact, it has the direct impact upon the basic understanding of the process with its different consequence. However there has been a specific reference for the curse development as well. For instance, the way I have involved myself in the process of investigation has led to the generation of its view at par. However, this has been taken into certain consideration pertaining to the effective understanding where the entire course depended on the concept development process more that getting mark in the assessments. There takes place the difference between examination and assessment. Through the course, I have developed the idea regarding the types of cyber security crimes- sabotage and breach. It has also provided me ample scope to study on the regulations and laws a ssociated with the criminal activities in different countries. Program: Through the programs on the laws and regulations associated with cyber security crime, I have had practical knowledge on how this is mitigated and fought against. This is highly effective for the purpose of special investigation process. My research paper have actually helped me develop a time frame of my own where I can identify my strength regarding the subject and my weakness as well. For instance, while going through the theoretical approach, I was highly effective for the special understanding of the cases where this would be taken into certain consideration for the effective understanding of the issues. Future Career: My learning experience would definitely uphold the specific skills to find out how effective I would be for the development process. In this case, it needs to be taken into account that the entire understanding has to be developed through the practical implementation of my learning. In this process it has to be taken into certain understanding that the specific issue for the purpose would be highly impactful for career development. However, this would be highly effective for the general understanding of career development. Since I would prefer to choose my career depending on what I have learned in these days from the course and the programs, I would consider this topic and the research process highly impactful to determine how effectively I would go along with the changing mode of studies. The Learning Process: My learning process was stringently based on practical understanding cyber security and cyber crime. In this process I afforded to develop my thinking and calculating skill pertaining to web development and web analysis. In terms of web content analysis, I had to develop some certain skills on how the websites are hacked. Through the knowledge development process, I gradually started understanding the core concept. Application of Learning; In terms of application, I would consider myself and drive myself to ardent dedication for the specific learning method. In this aspect, the basic understanding has to be taken into certain understanding that the basic course has to be taken into specific case where the learning would be taken place. My application would be on the mitigation and restriction of cyber security issues. Reference: Bellman, S., Burgstahler, S. and Ladner, R., 2014. Work-based learning experiences help students with disabilities transition to careers: A case study of University of Washington projects.Work,48(3), pp.399-405. Fink, L.D., 2013.Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. John Wiley Sons. Fink, L.D., 2013.Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. John Wiley Sons. Kolb, D.A., 2014.Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. FT press. Nonis, S.A., 2014. CREATING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING EXPERIENCES FOR STUDENTS IN A BASIC INTERNATIONAL MARKETING COURSE.Patrick D. Fountain, p.114.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Emerging Trends and Applications in Information Communication Technolo

Questions: Demonstrate the ability to evaluate management practice using Organisational Behaviour theories and research and make practical recommendations (Evidence Based Management). Demonstrate the ability to conduct literature search and review. Demonstrate the ability to write in an academic style? Answers: Introduction The economic conditions of the present day market scenario are tough to deal with for any organization, along with the tough economic conditions; the competition in any market scenario on a global basis has increased exponentially in the past few years. It has been noted by top officials in the field of management that there is a need for the employees of various organizations to understand the goals of the organization. The individuals are working in the organization first needs to achieve the goals that have been set for them individually or on a group basis to achieve the higher order goals of an organization (Abston and Kupritz, 2011). This method increases the chances of achieving the organizational goals and in the process also increases the working efficiencies of the individuals, who are a part of the organization. This method of goal setting has been considered by many as a method of motivation for the employees of an organization. This essay sheds lights on the various proc esses of goal settings and the different types of goals that can be assigned to an individual or a group of individuals in the organization (Knies and Leisink, 2013). The goals shall also be determined based on the type of work that the individuals are involved in within the organization. The essay shall also highlight the various levels of goals that a person can achieve. The goals can be considered to be just basic goals or can also be some challenging goals, which acts as a source of motivation for the individuals in the organization. The essay shall also discuss the effects of feedbacks and how they are to impact the individuals in the organization. It should be noted that the feedback system is only for persons who are involved in the managerial processes of the organization (Schultz, 2006). Goal Setting Process The theory that is related to the process of Goal Setting is a well-known and established theory of motivation. This fact is evident from the various researches and application of the principles related to the process of goal setting in various organizations. The main point of interest of the theory is that it encourages individuals in pursuing a specific goal that shall be challenging and helps the individuals in performing better in their field of interest. It is as opposed to the idea of setting an easy goal for an individual and just asking them to do the best possible on their part. There have been various researches on the process of goal setting and their effects on the individuals (Krishnan, 2009). It has given rise to the various mechanisms that are involved in the process and the conditions that act as the boundary conditions for the goal setting process. It has been seen from previous researches that a concrete and challenging goals enhance the performance of an individual , as it focuses their attention on a fixed result of their persistence and effort. Their focus on a single objective enables then to develop themselves and their usage of the various strategies that are required for the completion of their goals (MA, 2015). It has been noted from previous researches that goal setting depends on the complexity of the task, the commitment towards the goal and the feedback that the individual receives for their work (Li and Wang, 2015). The researches that have been conducted on the process of goal setting also states that the process has not yet been made to be aligned with the policies and the practices of the organization. It is because, in an organization, the work that an individual is frequently responsible for is now being shared by a group (Kleingeld, van Mierlo and Arends, 2011). This development in an organization has led to further research on the process of setting goals. Till date, the only published report is a meta-analysis that had been conducted by Frink, OLeary-Kelly and Martocchio in the year of 1994. Their research stated that there is a positive effect of the setting of group goals on the performance of the group (Shahin and Mahbod, 2007). This result was concluded after they compared the impact on the group performance due to the setting of low goals or no goals at all. Thus from the various researches and previous works that have been done in the field of goal setting, it is being advised that the individuals and the groups that are working in the organization be assigned with specific and challenging goals (Chowdhry, 2012). It shall help the organization in improving its quality of service because the performance of the individuals and the groups that are working within the organization shall improve due to the process of goal setting (Matsui, Kakuyama and Onglatco, 1987). It is being advised that the goals that shall be set for the various individuals or group working within the organization be set depending on the plans which the company makes for the upcoming annual year. Types of Goals It is being proposed based on the theories of goal setting that the goals that are set for the individuals who are working at the managerial posts, be individualistic in nature, whereas, the goals that are being set for the non-managerial individuals in the organization be group goals (Tosti, 2006). From researches that have been conducted in the past by Matsui in the year of 1987, it has been observed that more than individual goals, people in the Japanese culture set more importance to the achievement of the group goals (Locke et al., 1989). It led to the conclusion of the fact that the productivity that an organization got when they set group goals was much more in comparison to the productivity that an organization go by setting individual goals only. Further research conducted by Kleingeld in the year of 2011 supported the fact that was put forth by Matsui (Kleingeld, van Mierlo and Arends, 2011). The term egocentric was introduced by Kleingeld to describe individual goals and stated that the performance level based on individualistic goals was less compared to the performance due to group-centric goals (Zetik and Stuhlmacher, 2002). The research indicated that there is a need for a both individual as well as group goals to maximise the level of performance in an individual . The conclusion of the study that was conducted by Kleingeld stated that the groups goals had a more positive effect on the performance of an organization rather than individual goals (Nguyen, Hoang and Jedrzejowicz, 2012). It also states that the effectiveness of the various individual goals can be increased and improved if they are to be made more group-centric instead of making them egocentric in nature. Thus based on the various studies and researches in the past, it is being advised to maximise the performance level of the various individuals (Johnson, Dickinson and Huitema, 2008). The individuals who are working in the organization, group-centric and individual goals should be set for the managerial staffs for achieving a higher performance level and the same should be applicable even for the individuals who are working in the non-managerial posts within the organization (Van Soelen, 2013). Level of Goals There have been a number studies and researches in the past that states that higher level and specific goals evoke the maximum level of effort from an individual working in the organization. The performance level of an individual improves and increases while trying to achieve a higher level and specific goals (Nicklin and Williams, 2011). Whereas, studies indicate that the effectiveness of achieving a goal that is vague or lower in nature i.e. not challenging for the individual does not improve the performance of an individual. Researches that has been conducted in the past by Mento, Steel and Karren in the year of 1987 or Tubbs in the year of 1986 all support the above-stated fact. There has been confusion regarding the terms goal level and goal difficulty. Goal difficulty is stating the probability in achieving a particular goal. A goal that only 10% of the organizational workforce can achieve is considered to be a more difficult goal than a goal that the rest 90% of the organizati onal workforce can achieve. Whereas, goal level is often correlated with the term goal difficulty but is considered to be the performance level that needs to be achieved while achieving a particular goal (Pidd, 2012). The study that has been conducted by Locke in the year of 1967 and 1982 simply states that the level of performance is directly related to the level of the goal that needs to be achieved. The study indicates that higher the level of the goal the higher the level of the performance, but the condition remains that the ability of the individual or the group who is trying to achieve the said goal is adequate to achieve the set goal (Cureu, Janssen and Meeus, 2013). Thus, from the studies that have been done in the past, it is being advised that there should be a mix of higher level and basic level goals for the individuals in the organization (Palomares, 2009). The higher level goals shall act as a motivating factor for the individuals and shall encourage them to improve their level of performance and, as a result, improve the performance and level of quality of the organization (Gmez-Izquierdo et al., 2015). The basic goals can be considered to confidence booster and shall also be used for improving the performance of the individuals who are not adept at achieving higher level goals. Interim Review and Feedback Review and Feedback is an important part of the process of goal setting. It is considered to be a major aspect of improving the performance of an individual or a group. The concept of Review and Feedback is based on the process of investigation of the actions of the individuals or groups in the task of achieving a set goal and providing them with the information based on their performance (Shahin and Mahbod, 2007). There are two types of feedback that one can receive. It can be individual feedback or it can also be a group feedback. But studies indicate that while working in a group a mixture of individual and group feedback is the best method of feedback. Studies conducted by Zander and Wolfe in 1964 and Zanjoc in the year of 1962 states that the feedback that consists of the group and individual performance reports tends to be more effective over a feedback that contained information regarding the performance of either the group of the individuals only. In the year of 1982 Campbell and Lord devised a method of establishing a relation between goals and feedback and the work that is put in by an individual in achieving the goals (Davis, 2005). This relation was devised from the theory of control theory. Thus, it is evident from the studies that the feedback and review system is necessary to motivate the individuals working to improve on their present state of performance in order to achieve their set goals (Wright, 2012). Conclusion It has been quite evident from all the researches that have been done in the past on the process of goal setting and the related theories. The organization can make use of the various processes that are involved in the goal setting process in so as to enhance the work quality, by improving the performance of the individuals who are working within the organization (Pekrun et al., 2014). The four factors that have been highlighted and mentioned in the paragraphs as mentioned above are of utmost necessity for the organization to achieve a higher order organizational service level and performance. References Abston, K. and Kupritz, V. (2011). Employees as customers: Exploring service climate, employee patronage, and turnover.Performance Improvement Quarterly, 23(4), pp.7-26. Chowdhry, B. (2012).Emerging trends and applications in information communication technologies. Berlin: Springer. Cureu, P., Janssen, S. and Meeus, M. (2013). Shining lights and bad apples: The effect of goal-setting on group performance.Management Learning, 45(3), pp.332-348. Davis, W. (2005). The Interactive Effects of Goal Orientation and Feedback Specificity on Task Performance.Human Performance, 18(4), pp.409-426. Gmez-Izquierdo, J., Feldman, L., Carli, F. and Baldini, G. (2015). Meta-analysis of the effect of goal-directed therapy on bowel function after abdominal surgery.British Journal of Surgery, 102(6), pp.577-589. Johnson, D., Dickinson, A. and Huitema, B. (2008). The effects of objective feedback on performance when individuals receive fixed and individual incentive pay.Performance Improvement Quarterly, 20(3-4), pp.53-74. Kleingeld, A., van Mierlo, H. and Arends, L. (2011). The effect of goal setting on group performance: A meta-analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6), pp.1289-1304. Knies, E. and Leisink, P. (2013). Linking people management and extra-role behaviour: results of a longitudinal study.Human Resource Management Journal, 24(1), pp.57-76. Krishnan, R. (2009).Formal models for group-centric secure information sharing. San Antonio, TX: Dept. of Computer Science, University of Texas, San Antonio. Li, P. and Wang, W. (2015). A novel group-centric secure information sharing model with trust level considered.International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing, 8(2), p.194. Locke, E., Chah, D., Harrison, S. and Lustgarten, N. (1989). Separating the effects of goal specificity from goal level.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 43(2), pp.270-287. MA, L. (2015). PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK, GOVERNMENT GOAL-SETTING AND ASPIRATION LEVEL ADAPTATION: EVIDENCE FROM CHINESE PROVINCES.Public Administration, p.n/a-n/a. Matsui, T., Kakuyama, T. and Onglatco, M. (1987). Effects of goals and feedback on performance in groups.Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(3), pp.407-415. Nguyen, N., Hoang, K. and Jedrzejowicz, P. (2012).Computational collective intelligence. Berlin: Springer. Nicklin, J. and Williams, K. (2011). Self-Regulation of Goals and Performance: Effects of Discrepancy Feedback, Regulatory Focus, and Self-Efficacy.Psychology, 02(03), pp.187-201. Palomares, N. (2009). Did You See It Coming?: Effects of the Specificity and Efficiency of Goal Pursuit on the Accuracy and Onset of Goal Detection in Social Interaction.Communication Research, 36(4), pp.475-509. Pekrun, R., Cusack, A., Murayama, K., Elliot, A. and Thomas, K. (2014). The power of anticipated feedback: Effects on students' achievement goals and achievement emotions.Learning and Instruction, 29, pp.115-124. Pidd, M. (2012).Measuring the Performance of Public Services. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schultz, J. (2006). Measuring service industry performance: Some basic concepts.Performance Improvement, 45(4), pp.13-17. Shahin, A. and Mahbod, M. (2007). Prioritization of key performance indicators.Int J Productivity Perf Mgmt, 56(3), pp.226-240. Tosti, D. (2006). Commentary: What ever happened to feedback technology?.Performance Improvement, 45(2), pp.5-7. Van Soelen, T. (2013). Building a Sustainable Culture of Feedback.Performance Improvement, 52(4), pp.22-29. Wright, S. (2012).Competitive intelligence, analysis and strategy. London: Routledge. Zetik, D. and Stuhlmacher, A. (2002). Goal Setting and Negotiation Performance: A Meta-Analysis.Group Processes Intergroup Relations, 5(1), pp.35-52.

Friday, April 17, 2020

MLA Format Sample College Essay

MLA Format Sample College EssayThe MLA format sample college essay is what all writers are advised to keep in mind when writing a college paper. This format sample from the MLA is an excellent example of the style and structure that will make the paper suitable for reading at your college. It was originally designed to teach essay writers how to write papers, as well as any other type of writing they may wish to do, so it is worth taking a look at this format before you begin your own composition. Even if you have already written a good college essay, there are lessons to be learned here that may help you improve upon your past work.The MLA format sample college essay was specifically designed to provide people with a clear-cut guide on how to write a college paper that will be easily understood by professors and other professors. This style guide also focuses on the basic structure of the paper. It not only presents you with the main points of the essay, but also helps you organize them properly.The MLA format sample college essay is based around four parts, which are different sections of the paper that should be tackled individually. Each section deals with a specific area of the essay and should be tackled thoroughly. By having each section developed separately, you will find that the writing will become easier.The first section, called Introduction, is where you introduce yourself and the context in which you are writing. In this section, you should think about the issues that are about to be discussed, and how these issues relate to other aspects of the paper. This section is very important because it is where you get to define your topic and also give your students a guideline on how you can do so.The second section is called Subtopics, and it gives you a list of topics that will form the backbone of your paper. The list can be anything you wish, as long as it is related to your topic. You should have a goal for the sub topics, as well as an outline to f ollow.The third part discusses a topic in general. In this section, you should be able to explain why you are writing the paper, what you hope to accomplish, and why your students should care about the topic. The final part of the paper is the Conclusion, and you should give your students a summary of the whole paper in an easy to understand manner. It should also encourage them to continue to take a look at the paper and help them learn from it.The next time that you write a college paper, you will want to remember that you are working with students who are trying to learn something. They want to know about their topics, and you want to help them get there. By following the MLA format sample college essay, you can create a format that will make your college essays easier to read, and you can structure your paper accordingly.The MLA format sample college essay was designed by a committee that included Alexander McKay, who was one of the most prolific and influential literary critics of his time. The program is still in use today, and it is easy to adapt to using. When you do, you will find that you have a whole new set of skills to develop.

Friday, April 10, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS Essays (898 words) - Agronomy, Farmer, Agriculture

TABLE OF CONTENTS Letter of Transmittal..................................................... iii I. Introduction............................................... 1 II. Five Careers for a Graduate of Agricultural Studies. 1 A. Self-Employed Farmer............................ 1 B. Sales (Equipment, Chemical, Seed)............. 1 C. Ground Truthing Manager........................ 1 D. Teacher.............................................. 2 E. Farm Manager...................................... 2 III. Summary................................................... 2 Works Cited............................................................... 3 iv I. Introduction Agriculture is a vast and expanding world for many people here in the mid-west. This is not a career to be taken lightly, since it has it's ever-changing highs and lows; which attract people and also discourage them too. Deciding what a graduate wants to do in agriculture is a difficult process, I know since I am in the process right now. Some of the following careers are ones that I am more familiar with since I have been around most of them. The following jobs: Self-employed farmer, sales (equipment, chemical, and seed), district research manager, teacher, and farm manager are a few options of a new college graduate. Below are the descriptions of each. II. Five Careers for a Graduate of Agricultural Studies In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the five jobs selected that a new graduate in agriculture may want to follow to upstart his career. A. Self-Employed Farmer A self-employed farmer is one that you see out in the field early in the morning and late at night. He does not work for a large company growing crops for them; he grows them for him to sell. The farmer's main goal is to raise the most productive crop he can, earning the best profit available, and working with the land to keep it sustainable condition. A variety of crops can be grown, and animals can be raised too. This is a job that one must truly love and be devoted to for if one is not then many things can go wrong and they will not succeed. B. Sales (Equipment, Chemical, Seed) A sales person is a person who has to have a lot of initiative to go out and introduce people to his product. I grouped sales all together because they all use the same principle and that is initiative. The sales person has many hours on the road traveling all over his district talking to people and just keeping up his public relations with the farmer, so when it comes time to sell his product he might have a edge up. This person is also very knowledgeable of everything he sells, since the buyer always has a question and they come to him when they want it answered. Also public speaking is a big part in this field, since meetings are required to introduce new products each year. C. Ground Truthing Mananger Ground truthing managers are involved with the managing of crop scouts, who survey crops. These managers are also involved with the growers in their project and keep up public relations with them. Managers will be called on to answer seed and chemical 1 questions and make recommendations to the growers, from the data collected by the scouts in the grower's respective fields. One needs to be knowledgeable in many aspects of agronomy, examples such as, soils, weeds, seed, crops, crop development and chemical knowledge are a must. Computer skills are used since there is handheld computers in the field, then the transfer of the information taken down at the field must be put onto another computer and sent to the headquarters for evaluation. D. Teacher Teachers provide insight to young aspiring agriculture students. Teachers take what they have learned in school and also from practical experience, and pass it on to the students in a form that can be taught or studied. Teachers are employed at schools as Vocational-Agriculture teachers. They may be required to head up the FFA chapter in that school and make all arrangements that go along with that. A graduate wishing to teach, but not on the high-school level, may try teaching at a university. Additional education will be needed such as an advanced degree or a master's degree. E. Farm Manager Farm manager's is a job where you can work from the comfort of your pick-up. You are in charge of some land that was put into your hands to manage. The manager is the middleman between a person who owns the ground and the person who rents it and raises a crop on it. He is

Monday, March 9, 2020

The Threat of Overpopulation on Mass-Production Essays

The Threat of Overpopulation on Mass-Production Essays The Threat of Overpopulation on Mass-Production Paper The Threat of Overpopulation on Mass-Production Paper However, beyond a certain point, which is defined as overpopulation, diminishing returns might set in and these advantages Of a argue population will vanish. In 1 990, the world population was 1. 6 billion people, currently a total of approximately 6 billion people inhabit the earth and this number is projected to reach 16. 4 billion, more than double todays population by the year 2060. As the population continues to explode, many researchers and theorists fear that Earths carrying capacity will be met in the near future, and if the predictions come true, it will be tragic and devastating for many. The problem of overpopulation is an issue that faces societies around the world and is not just increasing steadily, but exponentially. The problems of Overpopulation come with many social, economical, environmental issues. Although problems of overpopulation cannot necessarily be prevented and eliminated, technology is being used to help improve the situations. In this essay, I want to focus the attention on the threat of overpopulation to managements ethos of mass-production and mass-consumption by using three illustrations. In the following discussion, I will first examine the negative consent ounce of resources shortage and the environmental degradation, which are the most direct effects caused by overpopulation to mass-production and mass-consumption. This will be followed by the threat of the rising unemployment and social unrest to management. The 3 illustrations I want to use are the overpopulation in China, India and Australia respectively. With just over 1. 3 billion people, China is the worlds most population country, taking up roughly 25% of the worlds population. Specifically, for every kilometer, approximately 139. 6 people are living in the radius. Overpopulation has been such a problem that China has confined each couple to bear only one child. However, In the next few decades, India, he worlds second most populous country is expected to surpass China in population. Also, Indians high population growth is not only focused on the poor sections of society but also results in sub-standard conditions for growing segments of the Indian population. The last illustration is Australia, as it is regard as a last frontier by many people because it has a relatively small population of just over 1 8 million people together with vast amount of mineral wealth and resources. Is Australia is not safe from the challenge of overpopulation, then who can be? In the following analysis, will use the sever honeymoon caused by overpopulation in these three countries to illustrate the threat of overpopulation on current management. Scarcity of resources and environment degradation It is obvious that overpopulation results in mass-consumption in a large extent. The average level of consumption is very high and a majority of people consume a large amount of goods and services. In addition, mass- production is in reality the process of utilizing more energy and resources to increase the productivity and efficiency. To put it simply, the more inhabitants living in the earth, the greater the need. Because of overpopulation, people consume more, putting increasing strains on the resources that sustain mankind. However, those resources fail to deal with the burgeoning demand. In the following, will analyses the effect of the shortage of two major resources, namely, food and energy, due to overpopulation, on mass- production and mass-consumption. Assessment of food shortage One of the main consequences of overpopulation is an increasing total demand for food. Specifically, insufficient growth in agricultural production may seriously harm the mass-production of the sector of agricultural, induce argue scale hunger and malnutrition in the poor region, and even jeopardize the social economic development of the entire society. For example, India prides itself on having been self-sufficient in food production for decades, but the fact is that India has 16. 8% of worlds population but only 2. 42% of the land area and 4% of water resources. According to the International Food Policy Research Institutes 2011 Global Hunger Index, it ranks 67 out of 81 countries and has more than 200 million food-insecure people, the most in the world (Bureau Report, 2012). What is worse, according to EUNICE, a third f the worlds malnourished children live in India and overpopulation seems to be one of the main reasons (World radio, 2012). Another example is the rapid population growth in Australia, triggering a process of land use to less and less and even to intensification. Also, because of the rapid growth in population, urban area considerably spread to farmland and natural areas, which affect the quality life of residents and reduced the functional capacity of natural resources (Socks, 1 996, 117). There is no doubt that the sever consequence Of above examples are the result Of overpopulation. In order to tackle the problem of food shortage, one of the goals is to increase food and land production. And there are two methods to achieve these objectives, through extending cultivated land acreage as well as through increasing yields. However, both ways require a vast amount of investment in land development and irrigation. This put great threats on the mass-production of agriculture. Because rather than by increasing land productivity, most of the underdeveloped countries have until now responded to overpopulation by increasing more land acreage under litigation; but the problem is that there are not enough arable land and most of countries have already exhausted the supply of arable land, therefore, they are facing a sudden need to increase yields, which is regard as significantly more difficult due to insufficient money ability to invest in technology to improve the land productivity. This great threat, challenging the mass-production in agriculture, probably explains why the developing countries are losing the capacity to feed themselves. In turn, this threat will ultimately result In a society of mass poverty, which is contrary to a society of ass-consumption. Assessment of scarcity of energy Another consequence of overpopulation is energy shortage. The abrupt increase in oil price, natural gas and coal, and the difficulty of discovery of new energy sources signal that energy supplies were virtually exhaustible. For instance, in China, most major cities are facing power cut as the energy demand peaks; therefore, most of the factories are force to stop pumping out goods. India is another nation facing energy crisis. Insufficient of energy, such as coal, oil and natural gas, require India to import increasing amount of expensive fossil fuels, which haven taken toll on the Indians economic development. Also, in order to protect their domestic consumers from the global high cost of energy, most of the state-run energy companies are racking up billions of dollar in losses by selling relatively low price fossil fuel. From the example above, we can see that the increasing demand of energy drive up prices of energy and raw materials and put pressure on ports and transportation lines. Thus, most of the energy-consuming factories have to save energy by reducing the energy intensity and improving energy efficiency. The high price of input and a wide margin for saving energy, again put a great threat on the mass-production of factories. Factories face a dilemma of balancing the energy conservation as well as the increased efficiency in the use of energy and the industrialization and the development process, which require a great consumption of power. From the assessment of the shortage of food and energy, we can conclude that given present zooming consumption rates and the estimated increase in these rates because of overpopulation, the real per capital cost of providing people with a multitude of goods and services based on natural resources, such as water, food, raw materials, fossil fuels and so forth, will inevitably and markedly increase. What is worse,. Continuing population growth and the endless search for economic development have contributed to the environmental damage. In addition, environmental degradation may be imposed by the scarcity of natural resources As Australias cities continue to grow, they are facing an increasing problem in disposal of solid waste. According to State of the Environment Advisory Council, each Australian produces 681 kilograms of garbage per year, while his figure is 513 kilograms in other industrial nations. Handwriting (1996) pointed out that New South Wales, the most populous state in Australia, is facing an environment crisis due to a growing mountain of tires being dumped on native bush land and private farming properties. Unscrupulous operators are dumping or burying more than one quarter of the five million tires Worn Out in New South Wales each year on secluded bush sites or leased private properties. There is no doubt that most factories and companies have to deal with the environmental problem and of course the government will tackle the environmental pollution by fining the manufacturers and make more environmental constraints on them. Therefore, Taking into account of the scarcity of resources and environment degradation, entrepreneurs suffer rising input prices such as land prices and price of raw materials because of the smaller amount of the resources and the difficulty to gain assess to the resource. This, In turn, manifests in higher price for goods and service, which consumers suffer from. This violates the low cost purpose of mass- production. As a consequence, overpopulation puts a great threat on impasses, which focusing on mass-production to survive and even make profit in the competitive market. They have to invest considerable amount of money and energy into tech oenology to cut the cost of the entire process of the mass-production and increase efficiency in order to achieve the leading position on the market. This will further exacerbate the competitive threats in the market. In addition, the society of mass consumption is the result of a higher purchasing power, as well as of social struggles for a better share of the production benefits. However, due to overpopulation, the price level rises ND then the future purchasing power of money will go down and people are difficult to gain the benefit of mass-production. This also goes against the purpose of mass-consumption. Increasing unemployment rate and social unrest Overpopulation not only put great threat on the higher input prices for mass- production and on the difficulty of investing in technology to cut price and increase efficiency but also put great on sever social issues, such as increasing unemployment rate and social unrest. Because of overpopulation, the competition for available jobs is tremendous. According to the latest World Development Report by the World Bank, Indians youth unemployment was 9. 9% for males and 11. 3% for females in 2010, while, in 1985, the figures were 8. % and 8%, respectively. The rising youth unemployment rate, is virtually 50% more than the national average, or total unemployment rate (Skunk, 201 2). This figure is shocking. Another example of growing unemployment is the immigration problem in Australia. In Australia, immigrant, who mainly contributed to the rapid of population growth in Australia, adverse ly influence the unemployment issue. The increase in immigration create the excess supply of labor and hence unemployment. The immigration minister Chris Evans said he would decide whether to slash Australias migrant intake if the unemployment was continuously rising. Thus, it is clear that because of overpopulation, the supply of labor excess the demand, which cause unemployment. This either forces down the real wage or the real wage rigidity. If the real wage falls, the disposable income will decrease as well. And because of the higher prices for goods and services caused by the shortage of resources, People do not have sufficient income to arches a great amount of goods and services, greatly challenging the ethos of mass-consumption. As a result the ethos of mass-production is likely to be impaired, as mass-production in fact is backed by mass-consumption. In terms of social unrest, low income employees might strike in order to strive for higher income, leading to great social unrest. In addition, the conflicts between Pakistan and India on water resource are especially sensitive since both highly-populated, fast growing countries have nuclear weapons. This is one of the social problems exacerbated by a resource limitation because of overpopulation. It is no doubt that all the social unrest will jeopardize the usual operation of many factories and companies, and is therefore eventually challenge the ethos of mass-production and mass-consumption. Conclusion In sum, the stress and strain caused by overpopulation is actually so tangible that resources are mercilessly exploited to cater to the ever-increasing needs of growing population. Also, the the external environmental costs of population growth are pervasive and cumulative, as for each small incremental increase in population, there will be a large incremental impact n the environment since much of what is left is marginal and sensitive to disturbance. The increasing demand for the scarce resource and environmental degradation caused by overpopulation, result in the high price for input and producing goods. This surely goes against the low price purpose of mass-production. What is more, manager are difficult in finding feasible solutions to solve the high cost of operation and to solve the situation of low- consumption, caused by high-cost products and low real income. Also, the high unemployment rate and increasing social unrest caused by overpopulation impede the normal operation of production. We should know that he rapid rise in world population is not creating problems only for the developing countries.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Supporting Evidence Based Practices through Research Essay

Supporting Evidence Based Practices through Research - Essay Example To Student 1: I agree that Career Ladder, Nursing Research Mentors and the Research/EBP Council provide great opportunities and encouragement toward promoting organizational commitment, best practices in clinical environments and patient outcomes through in-depth research. There is no better moment than finding a solution to a patient’s health problem that has been plaguing him (or her) for years. It is most important that all nurses learn how to conduct research within a multitude of platforms available, such as electronic databases, online libraries, electronic journal repositories, and through reviewing cases histories (Melnyk&Fineout-Overholt 2011). I have found that research provides a good foundation in continuing to educate myself in those most common issues found in healthcare and to question what is currently in place so as to make it better. There are new drugs being tested all the time and a patient might finally obtain relief by being willing to try something new (Webb 2011). Using the NIRNM provides me with experience in learning and understanding the process of IRB approval and how I can do my own research using MEDline, CONHAL and Cochrane Review.

Thursday, February 6, 2020

UK Investment in China Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

UK Investment in China - Essay Example However it is observed that the new emerging markets have socio-cultural contexts much different from the parallel contexts in western countries. Such cultural differences present themselves both as an opportunity and threat to those organizations expecting to find niche in these markets. If properly researched and read into the cultural dimensions of the foreign market can be woven into the international marketing mix and help establish the global supplier as a trustworthy supplier who understands the local realities. Inadequate research into these aspects and thereby deficient weaving of cultural dimensions in the international marketing mix can prove to be an expensive marketing mistake. This paper takes up the case study of TESCO, the major UK supermarket chain and undertakes a China market PEST analysis for TESCO.Paper goes on to suggest the standardization or adaptation in the international marketing mix that may be required to be brought about by TESCO looking at China market. TESCO entry strategy in Chinese market is also discussed with listing of various pros and cons of various entry strategies.. TESCO, the UK retail giant follows a standard strategy of expansion and growth comprised in four pronged action format: growth in the core UK business; expansion through international growth; maintain strength in non-food and in food trade and follow customers into new retailing services. As a consequence of this strategy TESCO targets : a better deal for its customers; makes it simpler for its staff; ensures that it reaps the fullest economy to make its overall operations cheaper and reaches all its supplies faster to market. Five years prior to TESCO's formal entry into the Chinese market, BBC News (1999) reported the following about UK China trade ties and collaborations," UK businesses have won contracts worth $3.5 bn in China. The UK is the sixth largest investor in China, with $13bn of direct investment. "Thus a long learning curve had preceded the formal entry of TESCO in the Chinese market in 2004.Thus by taking on China TESCO was taking up a pathway leading to a blind alley . TESCO made its first foray into China, in the year 2004, with the purchase of a 50% stake in a 25-strong hypermarket chain for 140m ($260m) entering into a joint venture with the Ting Hsin after a long three years' search for an appropriate Chinese partner. (BBC News, 2004).TESCO top management, at the time of entry, clearly made no secret of the lucrative and huge Chinese retail market. In the year 2004 it was reckoned that this retail business served around two million customers a week and was valued at 280m, with sales of 330m. (BBC News, 2004). TESCO had researched its Chinese partner thoroughly before taking up the joint venture stake. Ting Hsin was the largest food supplier in China and owned the Hymall chain of stores, of which Tesco was to have a 50% stake. Hymall had opened its first outlet in September 1998 and had rapidly grown to be the leading hypermarket operators in the country, with French chain Carrefour and US-owned Wal-Mart among its rivals. Most of its stores w ere located in "high quality" shopping mall developments in the east, north and northeast of China. (BBC News, 2004)The joint venture was premised on the logic that, Ting Hsin

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

The Piano History Essay Example for Free

The Piano History Essay In the 1700’s the piano was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori in Florence, Italy first introduced to the world as the pianoforte meaning â€Å"Soft loud†. â€Å"In the last quarter of the 18th century the piano had become the leading instrument of the western art of music that still lives on till today as an exotic instrument played by talented people in the world.† (Wendy Powers, 2003) Music has lived on from the beginning of time by all cultures and races for decades. Music is known to make the heart, soul, and brain one. Without this invention Beethoven would have not made the music that lives on till today and many other talented famous throughout the world. The piano reaches out to the most inner deepest soul all the way to keys that charge up chakras for well-being. A piano has 8 white keys c,d,e,f,g,a,b,c and 5 black known as the Chromatic scale which is 13 including next count which correlates with the 8, 11, 13 chakras. Bartolomeo Cristofori was born on May 4 on 1655 and passed away in 1731. Bartolomeo Cristofori’s occupation was a harpsichord maker and a designer. By 1688, Prince Ferdinando de Medici of Florence, son of the Grand Duke of Tuscany got Bartolomeo Cristofori because of his talent and reputation. The princes owned forty harpsichords and spinets, and hired Cristofori at the age of 33 to both curate the collection, and build new ones. Cristofori became the custodian of the instruments in the court in starting from 1690. Around 1700, he began to work on an instrument on which the player could achieve changes in loudness just by changing the force with which the keys were struck. Instead of the quill jacks used to pluck the string on the harpsichord, Cristofori’s innovation was to devise a way in which the strings were struck from below by individual hammers covered in deer leather. He had created the first two harpsichords with the first real escapement mechanism. When Italian Renaissance spread throughout Europe, the upsurge of innovation in art, culture and science was developing todays known as culturally rich. The 17th and the 18th centuries, decades from when the piano was invented the history of Italy is considered part of the early modern period. However this period, at least the first half, is often closely associated with the dominant artistic and architectural movement known as Baroque. The era of Italian Baroque was the birth of opera as a major form of entertainment. Unlike the plays popular up to this time, opera combined music and theatre into a spectacle that was designed to be a feast for the senses (Chakras). The origins of opera are credited to a Late Renaissance group of poets, musicians and humanist known as the Florentine Camerata, thanks to Bartolomeo Cristofori invention. This time also was marked the beginning of long foreign domination of Italy in the aftermath of the Italian Wars of the 16th century. After these wars were over, the Italian landscape was peaceful for a long time, expression with art talks during these time periods. The Renaissance in Italy was over by 1600 but Italy still made up a large portion of the European economy. However, the economic power of the country as a whole declined and none of the various Italian states did anything concrete to take advantage of the Industrial Revolution but they did however make other history in humanities. From the 14th century until the late 17th century, Italy grieved a very high death rate from many outbreaks of the plague. They are known as the Black Death and associated with medieval times; this plague did not come even come to a near end in the 13th century. The largest death toll had been in the early 1600s when an estimated 1,730,000 people died due to plague in Italy. Perhaps the pianos were some kind of good thing in the survivor’s lives’ to expression and create music. This was almost 14% of the population of the country at that time and also the time the piano had come around. There was an Economic decline; the powerful Habsburgs of Spain had dominated most of Italy in one form or another starting 1559 to 1713, and music and art continued to speak freely. In developing the piano Bartolomeo Cristofori had been working on getting a feel for the harpsichord to respond to touch. He developed a mechanical action that made it possible to sound simultaneously as many notes as one had fingers and do to this to be able to produce any work in the entire literature of Western music with variations of loud and soft according to the players touch at the keyboard. It included a complex mechanical action with a hammer that rose towards a string four times as fast as the finger, an escapement to allow the hammer to rebound from the freely vibrating string, a check for the hammer to prevent bouncing, and a shift so the hammer would play only one of the two strings to reduce volume. Cristofori’s hammer mechanism was so well designed, that no other of comparable sensitivity and reliability was developed as known for another seventy-five years. The highly compound accomplishment of the modern piano may be sketched directly to his original concepti on. Todays the piano sustains pitches in a lyrical fashion, creating all musical styles and moods and is universal all because of Bartolomeo Cristofori’s invention of the great musical instrument. This popular instrument has changed over the years (except for its hammers), and how its flexibility and expressiveness have inspired composers such as Beethoven, Schumann, Liszt, and Bartà ³k. It’s been pasted down for decades and artist today become best friends with the piano as they have the talent to sing and play with the piano. People have talents and a musical part in their life because of the invention that was lead down for decades starting from Beethoven. Pianos have improved from the 1700s of course from sound, shape and functionality since Bartolomeo Cristofori’s invention but he was the Italian that brought a different sound of music into our world. We went from having 88 keys on the piano 36 black and 52 white to high performance grand pianos with 92 keys as of today. From 1790 to the mid-1800s, piano technology and sound was greatly improved due to the inventions of the Industrial Revolution, such as the new high quality steel called piano wire, and the ability to precisely cast iron frames. The tonal range of the piano increased from the five octaves of the pianoforte to the seven and more octaves found on modern pianos. Around 1780, the upright piano was created by Johann Schmidt of Salzburg, Austria and later improved in 1802 by Thomas Loud of London whose upright piano had strings that ran diagonally. In 1881, an early patent for a piano player was issued to John McTammany of Cambridge, Mass. John McTammany described h is invention as a mechanical musical instrument. It worked using narrow sheets of perforated flexible paper which triggered the notes. A later automatic piano player was the Angelus patented by Edward H. Leveaux of England on 27 February 1879, and described as an apparatus for storing and transmitting motive power. John McTammanys invention was actually the earlier one invented (1876), however, the patents dates are in the opposite order due to filing procedures. On March 28, 1889, William Fleming received a patent for a player piano using electricity. Although before all these important beings and Bartolomeo Cristofori a man named Johannes Spinctus made the Spinet when later followed Bartolomeo Cristofori and his invention of the Spinettone which means â€Å"Big Spinet†. Not all of the piano elements where invented by Bartolomeo, but he did built the first piano and made great improvements in his time. Musicians that we still listen to their creations to including Bach and Beethoven first played on Bartolomeo Cristoforiâ₠¬â„¢s Harpsichord and liked to do so because of the higher pitch! Bartolomeo Cristofori put the pieces of the puzzle together for the invention of the piano. â€Å"The modern piano keyboard was first established during the 13th century of Medieval Europe with black and white wooden keys as it was later invented by Cristofori.† N/A (Unknown) Title Of Source: Piano History: The Complete Story. For decades the piano has become part of a business and career, and great talent of musical art. My boyfriend is a producer and he plays the piano and it is also a proven fact that music is the best medicine, specially hearing a piano play, and it was all because of the invention of the original piano back in time that lead to improved ones as of today. People evolved and became smarter and had the sources to build improved pianos. The piano is something that can be passed down for decades to come, just as Bartolomeo’s pieces have and changed the universe. Looking deeper into the Piano, it was created as corresponding to the flower of life. The flower of life is the original perfect geometric cemetry that created the universe. It is not only the root of mathematical proportions but also the source of shape, light of photonic solids and the source to every musical system in the world both known and unknown to humans, yes the dearest piano too. Isn’t it just phenomenal to know that music notes are separated by 90 degrees so are our chakras. So we can thank the flower of life that gave us the piano. The piano is a beautiful instrument that makes harmonic music and good for the soul. Now, what I came to conclusion is the piano might has not been able to change the world because wars, starvation and injustice continued. In the world of musicians and music lovers the piano was an improvement over the harpsichord which was only able to play loud of soft when levers where pushed. Many people try to push their dreams, because of their piano perfection and that opens doors to the talented! It’s nice to have a piano around; it’s a different feel every time, a great field of sound. Today 3 creations of Bartolomeo Cristofori from the years 1720, 1722, and 1726 remain in Museum’s around the world, but are too old and not playable. References Arkenberg, Rebecca. (October, 2002) Title of Source: Music in the Renaissance† Retrieved From: 2000 Bellis, Mary. (Unknown) Title of Source: The History of the Piano Bartolomeo Cristofori Retrieved From: Cipolla, Carlo M. (1981) Title of Source: Fighting the Plague in Seventeenth Century Italy. Retrieved From: Duchnycz, Jordan. (May, 2012) Title Of Source: Spirit Of Science 1-15 full movie series Retrieved From: Powers, Wendy. (October, 2003) Title Of Source: The Piano: The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655–1731) Retrieved From: N/A. (Unknown). Title of Source: Who Invented the Piano? Retrieved From: N/A (Unknown) Title Of Source: Piano History: The Complete Story Retrieved From:

Monday, January 20, 2020

Salingers Franny and Zoey Essay -- J.D. Salinger Franny Zoey Essays

Salinger's Franny and Zoey It is the consensus of most critics that Seymour Glass is the most important character and the leader of the Glass family. This is a point that is obvious from the stories that Salinger has written about the Glass family. Seymour is looked up to and revered by all the children in the family and is his mothers â€Å"favorite, most intricately calibrated, her kindest son†(Franny 89). When catastrophe strikes in Franny and Zooey, the only person Franny wants to talk to is Seymour. Why is Seymour the most important person in the Glass family? Seymour is the eldest child. Therefore, all will come after him. In a sense, nothing new can be done after Seymour has done it. All that is left is to imitate and learn from the child genius. This is what all the Glass children seem to do. In Franny and Zooey, we learn that Seymour and Buddy educated all of the children. Together, the eldest boys of the Glass family taught their siblings literature, philosophy, and religion. Seymour was also looked up to and relied upon by the children of his family. In Seymour: an Introduction, we learn that Seymour and Buddy were both active in taking care of their younger siblings but there was a slight difference in the reactions of the children to each of them. Buddy says: When Seymour told one of the twins †¦to take off his or her rubbers on coming into the apartment, each and all of them knew he mostly mean that the floor would get tracked up if they didn’t and that Bessie would have to get out the mop. When I told them to take off their rubbers, they knew I mostly meant that people who didn’t were slobs. (193-194) This is an important difference because it shows how bo... ... learn from. He exists to teach us a lesson. This is why he is the family storyteller. He is our teacher, our example, and our leader. What is the lesson we are to learn from him? Maybe only Salinger knows that for certain but I believe Salinger would have us each search out our own â€Å"pieces of holy ground†. He would have us all find our one true thing we are to do, even if it is only to go to teach in a small classroom with less than average writers, as is Buddy’s holy ground, or to live alone and write for only yourself, as is Salinger’s holy ground. He would have us all admit to ourselves what it is we are supposed to do and go out and do it instead of forever complaining and searching for better. Through Buddy, Salinger is trying to give us his version of the meaning of life. The ultimate message: Find your holy ground, there lies happiness and truth.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Motivation and Staff Performance in the Civil Service Essay

The key to motivation is the satisfaction of desires. As long as an individual has an unachieved personal goal, he has the force to motivate him, our behavior consciously or unconsciously, is generally motivate distinctive individual behaviour are to a considerable degree subconscious and therefore not easily susceptible to examination and evaluation. There has been persistent expression of dissatisfaction with the job attitudes and job performance of workers in public sector. This is due to the fact that the job is not attractive to workers. This inadequacy could be traced to the employee’s personal needs, job expectations and or innate states. Employees are usually more productive during a task simply because they want to do it, not because they feel they have to do it. Therefore, it seems evident that people or individuals will be prepared to commit themselves to their job to put in their best effort and loyalty to the job and to work towards the achievement of the organization targets if their goals are met on the job and if they are satisfied with the job. When one is positively motivated, it precipitates positive behavior hence positive erformance. According to Musselman and Hughes (1999) morale affects efficiency of operation. Morale is the result of combination of many complex attitudes, workers personal feelings and biases, their values, economic and cultural environment, degree of security physical health, emotional stability, realization of job expectations and the flow of communication between managemen t and the workers. 3 Many authorities believe that production rates are more sharply influenced by morale of the work force than by any other environmental factor. If employees feel that they are treated fairly well and good working conditions are provided, they are likely to have high morale to do their job. 1. 2 Statement of the Problem The civil service is the instrument through which meaningful development in the country is achieved. This is accomplished when the civil servant uses his acquired skills to formulate and execute government policies geared towards development. However, there is a strong evidence of deterioration about the work standard in the civil service. The behaviours of workers are characterized by such attitudes as laziness, absenteeism, lateness to work, hostility to members of the public; disloyalty and corruption. The expectations of civil servants are not met; hence, there is general laxity and inadequate performance in this sector. It is the general belief of civil servants that their counterparts in the private sector are better off with good standard of living. In view of this, they are not motivated to put in their best. This negative belief has created some problems in the attitude of workers in the civil service which has adversely affected job performance. 1. Research Question in view of the problem raised, this study is therefore designed to seek answers to the following questions in line with the aims of the study (1) What are the factors affecting job satisfaction among the Civil Servants un Oyo State? (2) To what extent are the Civil Servant of Oyo State are satisfied with their job? 4 1. 4 Objectives of the StudyTh e objectives of the research study are to (i) examine the factor that motivate the workers of Oyo State Civil Service; (ii) appraise the existing motivating packages for workers in the state ; and (iii) investigate the effects of staff motivation on job performance in he State. 1. 5 Significance of the Study The study will be of immense benefits to decision makers and human resource managers in organization when dealing with human problem such as the menace of low productivity as appropriate policy decisions that affect their personnel would be made. The importance of workers motivation and job satisfaction should not be ignored by government as they promote the corporate objectives of the organization as well as the individual. This research study would therefore serve as a guide to employers of labour as it would give them the understanding of the workers. The study is also expected to provide additional information research in this area and to government for effective efficient performance in respect of task and allocation of scarce resources for a result oriented state. 1. 6 The Scope of StudyConsidering the large population of the Oyo State Civil Service, it will be difficult and time consuming to include all the population of civil servants in the state. Therefore, the study focused on six ministries. The Miniseries are office of the Governor, ministry of Works and Transport, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Lands and Housing. The criteria for selecting these ministries are based on the fact that their programmes and activities are 5 geared towards the development of the state and the fact that they provide extensive services to the largest population of the state, hence, their impact is felt throughout the state. In addition, the population of these ministries is expected to be a representative sample of the characteristics of the whole civil service as the population of the selected ministries represents a larger proportion of whole civil service population. 1. 7 Limitation of the Study The system of records keeping at Oyo state civil service commission made it difficult to collect and retrieve data necessary for adequate analysis of data collected for the study. The time for the research study is not enough for an extensive work to be done. It was not easy to carry out a comparative study of all the Ministries in Oyo state because of fund. Definition of Terms1. 8 Definition of Terms The following terms are defined for the purpose of this studyMotivation The drive to satisfy a want or achieve an outcome. In this study, what motivates the labour to put up certain action and what comes out of it? Job Satisfaction The psychological disposition (attitudes and feelings) of workers towards his job. It refers to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied as a result of a job factor. Morale The collective attitude of workers towards one another, towards their employer, the management, or their work. 6 Job Involvement The enthusiasm and dedication which an individual demonstrates at his job as he gets deeply absorbed in it in a bid to achieve corporate objectives. Management Management is a process by which a co-operative group directs the actions of others towards a common goal (objective). In this case, management is used to mean senior management, except otherwise state. Training The process whereby employees learn the skill, knowledge, attributes and behaviours necessary to in perform their job effectively. Behaviour The general disposition of the management which employees perceive as friendly or hostile, conductive or unconductive and which affect their job behaviour and consequently performance. 7 CHAPTER TWO AREVIEW OF LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAME WORK 2. 1 Introduction Many employers of labour have come to realize that people are the most important of an organization. They concerned themselves with how the workers would be brought together to work for the fulfillment of the corporate of the organization. According to A. K. Ubeku (1975) â€Å"of all the assets of a business organization, people are the most important†. Motivation of workers in an organization is very important as it leads to the development of the individual and improve his job performance. Modern managers in an organization use personnel policy to motivate workers with a view to creating a conducive working situation where workers could attain self-actualization. Motivation creates a sense of success and security in the workers when his/her work is recognized as contributing to the aims and objectives of the organization. The classical approach to motivation has been the â€Å"correct and stick† method. The correct being money and the stick taking the form of physical punishment. The assumption has been that people would work harder and produce more if substantial financial rewards are placed before them or threatened with either dismissal or physical punishment. The classical theorists felt that workers could attain job satisfaction if their productivity and pay are maximized. This was not to be as money could motivate employees to a certain point only. Managers have also come to realize the importance of job satisfaction to workers. This is due to the facts that a worker who is satisfied with his/her works would put up an enhanced job performance while the reverse be the case for the dissatisfied worker. Thus, the success or failure of 8 any organization is a function of how satisfied its employees are with their work. A well-motivated worker could put up a high job performance because of the satisfaction he derived from his work. 2. 2 The concept of motivation and job satisfaction The word motivation is derived from the Latin word â€Å"movere† meaning to move. Motivation is therefore the process of arousing movement. The movement referred to being behavioural movement. Some theorists had asserted that people behaviour is determined by a complex interaction between the unconscious drives and the environment. Motivation is a predisposition to act in a specific goal directed manner. The term motivation refers to goal directed behaviour. Goal directed behaviour is characterized by the process of selecting and directing certain actions among voluntary activities to achieve goals. Motivation can be defined as the state of an individual perspective which represents the strength of his propensity to exert towards some particular behaviour. The word Motivation is derived from motives. The definitions of motives are as follows: Motives are expression of a person’s needs, hence they are personal and internal. Motives are acquired determinants that regulates the patterns of action and that arouse ore activate behaviour. They are the learned determinant of behaviour. Finally, Eze (1984) defined motivation as â€Å"a psychological process initiated by the emergence of a need in the organism which leads to a goal-directed behaviour/action aimed at satisfying the need†. 9 Davis (1981) defined job satisfaction as â€Å"the favorableness with which employee view their work†. It is an indication of the congruence between the worker’s expectations from his job and the actual rewards offered by the job. Eze (1984) defined job satisfaction as the â€Å"sense of well-being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an individual when he obtains regard, consequent upon his job performance, congruent with or very nearly congruent with his expected equitable reward. According to Kevin J. Russel, job satisfaction is â€Å"a function of the importance attached, by the workers, to the extent to which needs are generally met in the work situation relative to the way in which these workers have ordered their wants and expectations (orientation to work)†. These definitions stated above have one thing in common: a recognition of the fact that an individual’s expression of job satisfaction is an emotional effective personal response as a result of his estimation of the degree to which some facts of job reality is congruent or incongruent with values. In order therefore to understand or describe an individual’s job satisfaction, one needs to have a good understanding of that individual’s total personality and value system. Ejiogu (2009) stated that people’s perceptions of their job situation will be directly related to the values which they place on the various aspects of their job and its environment as sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. From Wikipedia (2010) job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work position. 10 2. 3 The Relationship Between Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Job Performance As seen above, motivation is quite different from satisfaction. While motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want of goal, satisfaction rears to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied. In other words, motivation implied a drive towards an outcome and satisfaction involved outcomes already experienced (Koontz, O’Donnell and Weihrich, 1981). Motivation, therefore, precedes satisfaction. In most work situation in Nigeria and elsewhere, the same factor affect job performance could also affect job involvement, job satisfaction, job attitude and work motivation. 2. 4 The Early Theories of Motivation and Job Satisfaction In the early years of industrial revolution and after, profit maximization triggered the industrialists to search for ways and means of motivating workers for higher productivity. They want to make profits as much as possible through increased productivity. According to this view, the way to attract employee to work is to offer them attractive pay and the way to attract employees to work is to offer their attractive pay and the way to increase productivity is to constantly raise salaries. Motivation of workers through non-monetary rewards was never thought of by these early industrialists. The early industrialist tied motivation to financial reward (increased pay) which would in turn give workers satisfaction. The early theories on motivation and job satisfaction are as follows: 1. Classical Theory/School 11 2. Human Relation School 3. Structuralists School2. 4. 1. Classical Theory/SchoolThe development of modern management started about the beginning of this century with the classical school led by Frederick W. Taylor. This classical school preached Scientific Management, which combines the study of physical capabilities of a worker with an economic approach which views man as being driven by the need to earn his livelihood. The classical school advocated that if material required was closely tied to work efforts, the worker would respond with the maximum performance he is physically capable of doing. Taylor and his followers saw the worker as a functioning appendage to the industrial machine. Following this, the teaching of the classical school had been referred to as the Machine Theory of Organisation. The school assumed that the most efficient organisation would also be the most satisfying one, because it would maximize both productivity and workers’ pay and consequently job satisfaction. However, Taylor never thought off non-monetary regards. 2. 4. 2. The Human Relations SchoolThe excesses of the Classical approach came to be modified by the teaching of the human relations School which was heralded in by Professor Elton Mayo and his associates in the Hawthorne experiments. These experiments were carried out at the Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne works in Chicago, U. S. A. between 1927 and 1932, were aimed at exploring the relationship between physical environment and productivity. The study was especially aimed at finding out the effect of illumination on productivity in the plant. The researcher discovered that when lighting was 12 illuminated step by step over a period of time, production increased correspondingly. On the other hand, when the researchers decided to decrease the illumination in the plant, production continued to rise and did so until the lighting was no longer brighter than moonlight. The major findings and conclusions of the Hawthorne Experiment are as follows(i) The level of production is set by social norms, not by physiological capacities; (ii) Non-economic rewards and sanctions significantly affect the behaviour of workers and largely limit the effect of economic incentive plans; (iii) Often, workers do not act or react as individuals but as members of groups; (iv) The importance of leadership for setting and enforcing group norms and the difference between informal and formal leadership; (v) The importance of communication, participative decision-making and democratic leadership in an organization. The Human Relations School assumed that the most satisfying organization would be the most efficient and so the organization structure and work should be related to the social needs of the employees. The rationale of the argument is that if employees are made happy, they will co-operate fully with the organization in their efforts and so increase organisational efficiency and productivity. Peter Drucker has criticised the views of the human relations school as being too employee centered. While the Classical and Human Relations Schools differ in their emphasis on either the formal or informal aspects of the organisation respectively, both had failed to see that productivity and workers satisfaction are inherently opposed philosophies. This has been left for the Structural School to sort out. That is the basic contradiction between a company’s quest for relationally and profit and the human search for happiness freedom of action. 13 The Structuralists see the company organization as a large, complex, social unit in which many social groups interact while these groups have common interests like the economic viability of the organization, they also have some other opposed interests like how the gross profits of the organization are to be distributed. The two groups within the organization whose interests frequently come into conflicts are management and workers, although by no means the only group envisaged by the Structuralists. Essentially, rivalry and conflicts between organizational groups are inevitable and, perhaps, occasionally desirable. Peoples’ behaviour is motivated by common basic needs. These needs vary in degree with gender, generation, culture, maturity and other life circumstances. If appropriately structured, a person’s job can help meet these needs, which leads to job satisfaction and job performance. A lot of research has been done in the area of motivation in relation to the area of organizational management. Researchers and authors agree that motivation is very crucial to the issue of job performance but they differ with regard to the things that motivate. Vroom (1964) sees motivation as a process governing choices made by persons or lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary activity. This implies that motivation propel an individual to prefer one job to another. Some researchers assumed that variables such as amount of reward are motivational variables that directly influence the strength of incentive motivation. The implication of this is that extrinsic motivation has greater influence on one’s (workers) performance. This seems to be in agreement with Skinners operant conditioning principle which states that â€Å"behaviours are governed by their consequences†. This is to say that if the consequence is positive, there will exist a better 14 performance (behaviour) from the worker. In other words, an individual’s willingness to perform and the effort he will be willing to put depend on the reward he will get from the performance of such activity. There are propounded theories which are sophisticated in nature. Some laying credence to or supporting the above viewpoints and others contradicting them. Some of these theories would be discussed since this review cannot comprehensively discuss all of them. In addition, the literature review will include motivation, job performance, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Nigeria Civil Service and Oyo State Civil Service. 2. 5 Maslow’s Theory of Motivation The need theory was originally advanced by Abraham Maslow (1938). According to him, people are motivated to satisfy a hierarchy or sequence of needs. He opined that man is a wanting being and what they want depends on what they already have. Maslow recognizes five (5) different needs that motivate individuals to work. These needs are as follows:2. 5. 1 Physiological Needs:These are considered to be basic biological functions of the human organisms and the most important of all human needs. They include the need for food, water, air, sleep, sex, rest, cloth and shelter. An individuals who lacks any of all these physiological needs is disturbed in mind. In addition, if these needs are unfulfilled, the higher needs will not be recognized. 2. 5. 2 Safety Needs:It is only when the individual meets the physiological needs that he tries to focus his attention on the next set of needs in the hierarchy, that is, the safety needs. At this level of the hierarchy, the employee is preoccupied with the safety of his life and property. He is also more concerned with stable situations and the security of his job. The needs for his 15