Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Are or should rights be based on nationality The Module is [ Essay

Are or should rights be based on nationality The Module is [ Citizenship in Theory and Practice] politics - Essay Example It is for this reason that arbiters of rights are always under scrutiny and lot of discussion goes on regarding the role and task of rights arbitrator for informing people regarding their rights. The question of rights has always challenged political philosopher and thinkers. The question has also tested the wits of moral thinkers as it is one of the fundamental issues of morality. Since, philosophy started in ancient Greece therefore early thought had Greek city state or polis in mind and for this reason the application of rights focused on the relationship of individual and polis. As such, the idea of rights is mainly based on the responsibilities of the individual citizen to the wider polis (Delanty, 2000). Individual submitted before the authority of polis for the protection of his life and limb. The concept of rights in the ancient world was related with area and territory. The concept of citizenship was firmly based on birth. Therefore, the development and application of rights has traditionally been firmly linked with a concept of territorial integrity (Lister & Pia, 2008). Modern concept of Western nationalism has firmly established the link between rights and territorial integrity, which was originally formed in ancient Greece and practiced in Roman Empire. ... Nationality and the nation state have always been linked; as a result, a similar link has been formed between the concept of rights and the foundation of nationality (Held, 1995). This strong link of rights and nationality continued on for a long period of time but development in science and technology along with better communication has brought significant changes in the outlook and approach of thinkers. Many factors are responsible for the changed attitude but three primary processes account for this attempt to revise the idea of rights. Firstly, migration has brought phenomenal changes in the concept of nationality. Secondly, the formation of regional political structures has meant that concepts of regional citizenship have taken firm ground. Numerous examples of regional bodies can be found; however, possibly the most significant at the present time is the European Union (Faist, 2007). Finally with advent of Information Technology the concept of globalisation has become a byword. The commencement of globalisation and the necessary political responses that have been taken have led many to question whether basing rights on nationality is applicable in an unified and mutually dependent world (Held, 1995). This concept of globalisation has questioned the link of rights and territory. Above all, as globalisation has increasingly served to de-link individuals and societies from the national setting, the idea that rights can be founded on the basis of national territory has been greatly criticised (Held, 1995). Considering the above assessment, the purpose of this work is to assess and examine whether, or should the application of rights be based on

Monday, October 28, 2019

Historical and political relation of anthropology with human rights Essay Example for Free

Historical and political relation of anthropology with human rights Essay From the onset, it is necessary to define anthropology as the social science that is involved with studying the inherent relationship patterns and origins of human beings. As a juxtaposition, the concept of human rights refers to the intrinsic freedoms and rights to which all and sundry (human beings) are entitled, if only by virtue of belonging to the human race, and these are broadly categorized into two main classifications, including the socio-cultural and economic rights, which pertain to the rights to education, food, work and participate in culture. The other distinct grouping of rights and freedoms are those of civil and political nature, encompassing the ideology of people being equal before the law, the right to liberty and life, and also, the freedom to freely express oneself, provided that this does not interfere with that of other people. It is noteworthy that the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights – a non-binding declaration by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 reiterates the equality of all humans as relates to their rights and dignity, further acknowledging that each individual was equipped with the vital tools of a rational conscience and logical reasoning, and thus, all subsequent inter-personal relationships ought to reflect a communal spirit of brotherly co-existence. This cognition is widely viewed as being the framework for justice, peace and freedom in the globe today (Goodale, 2004:18-29). From a historical perspective, the anthropologist is more concerned with deciphering the linkage between the afore-mentioned rights and the prevailing localized cultures, from whence an understanding of the basic outline of social justice against a backdrop of cultural relativism is investigated. The general concession is that indeed, deliberation into the historical aspects of anthropology reveals a contribution to both the practical and theoretical facets of human rights workings. Select case studies closely related to this postulation include the current crisis in the Middle East, pitting the Israelis against the inhabitants of the Gaza strip, the Rwandan genocide (Bowman, 2000:31-49) and the topical issue of gay rights in Southern Africa. The former predicament entails Israel devastating, over the recent past, a population of some 1. million inhabitants in Gaza, with their arms tied behind their backs, owing to the fact that there is no active army in Gaza. Statistics reveal that close to 1300 Palestinian casualties are on record, as opposed to a measly 13 Israelis in the raging conflict, largely regarded as a modern day case of ‘ethnic cleansing’. Since the year 2006, Israel placed a blockade into the Gaza region, thus inhibiting the delivery of necessities such as medicine, food and fuel. Previous attempts to foster harmony and well-being in the region, with cease-fires being disrespected severally, have led up to the present situation in which the stakeholders in the conflict, chief amongst which is the Hamas, the Islamic Palestinian socio-political faction that has been in control of the Gaza strip, and Israel itself, have agreed to permanently seek a lasting solution to avoid more bloodshed. The possible recommendations to aid in arriving at a peaceful co-existence is scenario where Israel takes the front row in ensuring a sense of hope to the Palestinians, via the action of taking the political risk and dismantling the illegal West Bank Settlements. On their part, Palestinians should institute measures to ensure they elect purposive leaders into power, if only to militate against the eventuality of history repeating itself iteratively. Hamas should in turn cease firing missiles into Israel, which only serve to wound and kill majority of the innocent civilians, and the large scale smuggling of arms, so as to avoid the likelihood of the situation degenerating into another â€Å"United States versus Al Qaeda† affair. Also, the other stakeholders in the conflict, namely Jordan and Egypt, should seal all loopholes that enable the military exploits of the Hamas to fall through. This being said, the International community should actively ensure they do not turn a deaf ear to the conflict, to be spearheaded by the United Nations and the European Union. The latter, in detail, involved South Africa holding its second, fully democratic elections in the year 1999, which were characterized by the recognition of a wide array of groups and previously neglected factions of the population, such as the gay and lesbian community. Earlier on, the country made history by pioneering non-discrimination on the basis of an individual’s sexual orientation, with gay and lesbian activists championing their cause by widely challenging the very constitutionality of laws that infringed on their freedoms, organizing workshops to educate voters on their rights, plus lobbying for the drafting and resultant implementation of rules and legislations guaranteeing equity in the rights of all citizens (Goodale, 2004:43-54). They also went a step further and created working relationships with non-governmental organizations like the Human Rights Commission and the Commission on Gender Equality, in addition to forming outreach programmes for the members of the gay and lesbian community, especially those that lived in townships. Of particular note is the fact that sodomy has been decriminalized before the South African courts, thus recording another victory in the war for adequate recognition of this community. Of significance is the assertion that, these developments were achieved even with the realization that the South African populace was still divided along ethnic and racial boundaries (Riches, 1986:16-29), and more importantly, within the indigenous cultural groupings in the country, homosexuality is deemed non-existent, or on the best case scenario, a foreign acquisition. Thus, in a nutshell, this case study can be assessed from the view that it not only shapes social patterns, but also, it is instrumental in the democratization of regimes, as influenced by the civil society. Yet another occurrence was witnessed in an iconic court case in Japan (2008), involving the challenging of the historical definition of whom the concept of â€Å"human rights† is meant to apply. The immediate bone of contention was that the court of the day had proceeded to expand the rights of the children of Japanese fathers and non-Japanese mothers to claim Japanese citizenship, and thus by extension, such definition by the justices in the case served to only ensure the protection of the fundamental human rights of Japanese citizens, excluding those of other non-citizens. In this way, this can be said to expressly alienate those people who did not have papers certifying their Japanese citizenship. However, this ought not to be the case, as the rights in question should be guaranteed to every human being, as the very name suggests. In a publication by one Professor Jones regarding this case, he posits that there is a sorry state of affairs in Japan, citing that the tendency of the Sovereign state to mediate the citizens’ claims against each other should be sharply contrasted against the Anglo-American system, which is characterized by human rights being the limiting factor of the state’s power over individuals. In this way, the case is illustrative of how culture and history can affect and/or influence human rights in society (Kurtz, 2001: 43-52). Whilst still appreciating the historical contribution of anthropology to human rights, it is worthwhile to take mention of the concept of hegemony, defined as the utter domination of a state over its allies, and how this has over time influenced historical changes, especially on the cultural frontier. As a focal point, hegemony facilitates the comprehension of power within the confines of routine daily activities, as may be underpinned by cultural (customary) practices (Asad, 1991:13-27). On a more positive note, it is fit to state that the anthropological theory has over the years succeeded to come up with a contested, unbounded and widely flexible supposition of the term, which consequently goes a long way in uncovering the cultural understandings and how these in turn shape power relations, naturalizing domination and acting to suppress different manifestations of resistance in the society (Gledhill, 2000:29-44). Again, drawing from the South African example, although in a different context, it can be established that, quite ironically, the evangelical work of missionaries can be termed as being part of hegemony, although it heightened societal consciousness, going on to spark a form of resistance that gave rise to the awareness of the black community, fuelling the fight against apartheid. Of particular contention is the debate whether, as an interpretive issue, resistance in society should require consciousness and be collective in nature, or whether on the other hand, an end of attaining justice should be envisioned from the onset. Also, it is disputable whether the concept at hand should be extended to incorporate such actions as may be influenced by a sense of non-cooperation or discontent. In the recent past, there has been great agitation in the anthropological circles, wherein the concept of culture has been scrutinized in detail. Earlier anthropologists focused chiefly on societies that were virtually unaffected by factors such as colonial influences, for example, but there’s light at the end of the tunnel since, today, greater emphasis is being laid on flexibility of the frame of thought of culture, as afore-mentioned, now not only being affiliated to habits and daily practices of a people, but also, being engrained in the values they abide to and the ideas subscribed to. In other instances, there have been historical documentations of indigenous communities confronting resistance from the perspective of laying claim to various resources, more so when these individuals are challenged to prove an authentic affiliation to the culture under consideration (Rejali, 1994:49-60); disqualification usually results from the assertion that certain social groups have already undergone cultural changes. In a strange twist, it can be seen that the concept of ‘culture’, as formulated by twentieth century anthropologists in a bid to champion the rights of small-scale communities in the wake of colonialism and other civilizing projects, has in present times been apposite to differing political ends of resisting reform in certain sectors and turning a deaf ear to the claims of indigenous people’s claims to reparation (compensation). On a transitional note, the political inclination of anthropology to human rights can be deduced by critical analysis of the two disciplines (Cohen, 1978:34-57). Such relationship necessitates a vivid conception of the said human rights within a template of anthropologically conceived ideas or principles. A brief intermission here is the appreciation that, as an academic discipline, anthropology seeks to study the various forms and bases of human unity and relative diversity, while the other side of this coin practically applies the acquired knowledge to actively solve problems that may plague the human race (Gledhill, 2000:59-83). This being the situation, politically-oriented anthropologists should concern themselves with instances where the denial of certain rights is pegged on the differences in one human aspect or the other. The validity of using ‘human difference’ as an indicator of human rights is that it incorporates the very specificity of what we as humans be it collectively or from an individual stance – have evolved to be, both culturally and socially. It is worth noting that the term ‘difference’, as applied in this context, refers to the linguistic, socio-cultural and/or biological characteristics of people, relative to the initial human capacities that facilitated their production in the first place. On the flipside, as may relate to human rights, these ‘differences’ may principally represent the products of the realization of social relations, personal identities and cultural forms (Goodale, 2004:98-110). The general implication of the above argumentation is that specific human rights may be advocated for by calling upon the trans-cultural, but positive, right to difference. This analogy can be stretched further still by acknowledging the unwritten law that anthropologists who study and research instances of societal injustices and assorted cases of human rights abuses do, in the actual sense, bear an ethical obligation to find lasting solutions to these predicaments. In particular, those working with marginal and/or indigenous communities shoulder the responsibility of supporting these groups by all means available, including advocacy as mentioned above (Fried, 1967:61-69).

Saturday, October 26, 2019


Asian Carp The Great Lakes system affects our lives in various ways. Not only does this water system affect people, it has an impact on the natural environment as well. The weather, climate, wildlife and habitat are all affected by this arrangement of five lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, and Erie. The lakes are huge and powerful, however they are very fragile when it comes to being mistreated. The ecosystem has been placed under stress in the past, and we now realize the importance of protecting and preserving our lakes. Years ago, a species of carp were brought into the United States to help our lakes, and now they run the risk of destroying them. Asian carp are a species of fish native to Siberia and China, but they were imported by fish farms in the southern United States to control algae and snail population. In the early 1990’s, aquaculture facilities in the southern United States were flooded and the carp escaped into the Mississippi River and spread into northern rivers. The carp moved north becoming the most abundant fish in some areas of the Mississippi river, triumphing over native fish and bringing hardship to the people who fished the river. The carps’ domination over the Mississippi is reason for concern in the Great Lakes region growing concern in the Great Lakes; the Chicago Ship and Sanitary Canal connect the Great Lakes to the Mississippi. Last month, a survey was taken that found Asian carp only 55 miles south of our very own Lake Michigan. Unless the Asian carp are deterred, they will infiltrate our great lakes, potentially bringing disastrous effects to the entire region.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Asian carp are a serious threat to the Great Lakes for a number of reasons; the primary concern being that they would become the dominant species after they enter the system. Asian carp can grow to the enormous size of four feet and weigh as much as 100 pounds. Their massive size results in a large appetite as well. In addition to this, Asian carp are a fast breeding species; upon entering the great lakes, it is likely that the carp will become the overwhelming majority of the fish population. Female carp carry up to one million eggs, allowing for this species to easily replace the local fish. These fast-growing Asian carp are not easy to get rid of. While smaller fish are scored and sold easily, this species of large fish are harder to process and score because their bones are big and difficult to remove.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Success: Goals

My Road to Success GEN/200 Irene Blundell My Road to Success Even though my road will be mentally and emotionally exhausting, I will need to obtain and maintain self-determination; to reach my goals in life. I never want to lose sight of the goals I have set before myself. I will become an example for this generation and many more ahead as long as I stay motivated to my goals. I will prove to my family that if they apply the right knowledge, anything is possible. I have to sacrifice to benefit my future for the reason that my future will be filled with wealth, happiness, and a sense of accomplishment.Continuing to receive the positive outlook I receive from many situations in life. Every day is one step closer to my goals as long as I stay focused. Self-determination is the key to reach goals in my life. Self-determination is to become accountable to my actions, thought, and words. Always developing an understanding of what my life experience have led me. My success is not focusing o n my situations at hand but the main goal ahead. I understood when I wrote my goals there would be sacrifices that I would need to face.Some people give excuses because they want to settle or scared to achieve greatness just because of how they think of themselves. People do not understand how much life has to offer. If they only humble there to mind and realize there is a bigger road than the dip in the road. Through my struggles in life, I had to humble myself and receive the positive outlook from the situations. I do not expect success to be easy, but continuing to be strong in my beliefs and not giving up and staying focused ahead is an award in itself. It would have been easy for me to give up, but I was driven on my goals I have set for my life.I never seen success to follow but I took advantage of the successful people that who were planted in my life to encourage me and teach me along this road. The past is an unchanging, but as long as I understand that I can change my tomo rrow, my life will become remarkable. The only way we move forward is to learn from the past and let it go. Some people spend more time living in the past and jeopardize an amazing future (Maxwell, 2003). After years of turmoil, I understood that forgiveness is the main factor a successful life. Maintaining self-discipline in college is vital to success.In college, I need to have good time management, budget, and become accountable for my actions. This degree plan I will obtain will set me up on an excellent career plan. I will not settle for getting by, but doing my best and settling college goals. I am the only one in my generation to finish high school and attend college, but not the last. Through all my hard work and dedication I will be able to pass down a legacy. I will pass down the knowledge that will help my family to achieve goals. For that every action that I do, not only reflect on me, but also my family.My family will reach the top together and not hold one another on a pedestal. No one wants to reach the top alone but acquiring amazing people to share it with along the road. Being someone’s biggest supporter can mean more that I considered. I think twice before I speak because my words influence people. I can either sow a seed of success or failure. It will benefit me in life if I decide to speak of success; because what a man sows he shall will reap I have been truly blessed with the successful people in my life that guided me onto the right path.They took time out of their life to impact mine, now I will impact others. Goals not written out are just wishes. Writing out my goals was hard to understand in the beginning. I had to set my goals high enough to inspire me but low enough to keep me encouraged. Writing my goals for my life was a slow but steady process but familiarized myself with this benefit. I always write my goal out and look at them every day just to reassure myself that success is just a decision away. Throughout My Road I put my goals in two groups. First, I set my Long-term goal with patience and research.Second, I make short-term goals to complete as long as it lines up with my main goal. I have accomplished goals in the past and understand the benefits of self-accomplishment. The reward I receive by achieving my goals is why I strive to keep pushing forward. Understanding that choices I make in life whether good or bad have an effect on the road of life. Throughout My road I have seen a great deal of people around me fail or give up. I took what I saw and applied it as positive tools for my lifestyle. I became strong because I never believed I was defeated or victimized of my situation .I decided not to keep that vicious family failure continuing in my own life was the stepping stone. When I realized that there was more to life than what my negative people in my life. I knew that the sky is the limit. I had an abundance of help from people who came into my life not because they had to but because they wanted to. My mentors were not going to let me be another statistic and gave me a chance to realize my potential. Every person in this world has potential they just need to accept the blessing and realize what is inside them.Although this road will be mentally and emotionally exhausting, I have made a decision to maintain self determination to reach my goals in life, for two main reasons. First, to be a great example for my family, I want them to understand what I was taught but that it is not where I came from but where I am headed (Fitzgerald, 2003). My family will understand that I apply the right knowledge in my life for that ,anything is possible. Serving in the military taught me about having self-discipline and Appling it to my life. I am glad I came into college with self-discipline and motivation I received in training.Every Situation I am in I receive the positive knowledge and apply it to my life. Most important is striving for my goals. I never want to lack motivati on or lose sight of what I am striving for. I will have self-discipline in my life to stay focus and motivate to achieve my goals. If I continue to strive, my future will be filled with wealth, happiness, and a sense of accomplishment. References Fitzgerald, E. (2003). First Lady of Song. Retrieved from http://www. ellafitzgerald. com Maxwell, J. C. (2003). Attitude 101. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Inc..

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Planning Of A Rich Media Project For Digital Portfolio

Project management as the building blocks of various types of businesses holds important roles in defining the success or failure of these businesses, whether it is used in a daily basis or in used in lighthouse events only. As the environment changes however, project management need to face new challenges and issues brought upon it by shifting trends in the society.Concerning project management, this paper discusses how the trends have shifted and what issues are presented in the face of project management science. In the end, I will describe how project managers have responded to those challenges and create new business models and new project management initiatives.I. Case Studies and FindingsII.1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Changing Environment: Current Trends and IssuesLimited ResourcesOne of the most obvious shifts in project management trends is the limited resources provided for each project. With the level of competition and professionalism expected by investors, project managers now ar e expected to do more with less. Tighter budgets, less time and fewer resources are some of the challenges faced by modern project challenges. Using those limited resources, project managers are expected to create products and provide services which are faster, cheaper and better. The basis of the competition is now rooted in two dimensions, time-based considerations and cost based considerations. The cost based dimension has been around since the beginning, but the increasing importance of time-based considerations is the new competitive edge. Companies or project managers today are demanded to control their cost using project management techniques and to deliver product or service to the market faster than anyone.Developing a consistent approachSurveyed executives and project professionals reported that developing a consistent approach to managing projects is one of the most common challenges in today’s project management. 24% respondents believed that designing the approac h toward a project management strategy is the crucial first step. Any other steps are built upon the success of this first step. It is the foundation of the whole project. If it is managed successfully, any other steps would run smoothly in aftermath.However, due to the unpredictability of situations, project managers can sometimes decide to change their approach toward the project. More often than not, this action does not deliver solutions to the problems, but rather generate confusion and baffle the people who already have their mindset tune-in to the preliminary approach (‘Research’, 2003)Managing multiple projectsAlmost 20% of the respondents believed that it is the allocation of resources that become their huge challenge in managing their projects. The difficulty level is enhanced once the project managers must manage multiple projects at once. One of the preliminary considerations project managers must made is about choosing the right projects. 17% of the executi ve and project professionals interviewed stated that one of the most common issues for companies is that they choose too many projects to manage or they choose the wrong projects.Deciding to manage projects without the right basis of considerations will generate flawed end-result and thus flawed corporate reputation. In managing multiple projects, the extent of the challenges, whether they are from the cost-based considerations or the time-based considerations is enhanced significantly (‘Research’, 2003).Limited visibility of project activitiesAnother important challenge and the one that is increasingly discussed in recent years is the limited visibility of project activities. Increasing scope of project, complexity and increasing need to be cost and time effective enhanced the necessity to have clear visibility throughout the project duration and processes. Nevertheless, such a visibility is seldom available because it requires significant amount of investment in IT in itiatives and staff training.Companies rely on project management more.About 72.4 projects within a company is lasting less than one year, which makes them eligible for implementing the project management science 51% of these projects are considered complex or highly complex. Almost 60% of companies surveyed manage projects at the enterprise level. 44% of these surveyed companies already have an established project office and a center of excellence for project managers (Research, 2003).II.2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Requirement: The New Business ModelsII.2.1.   Improving the Project ManagerIn order to deal with the changes in today’s marketplace, companies rely on project management sciences a lot more than yesterday. This is considered a logical step because managers discovered that project management science contain a significant competitive advantage to other concept of management. Companies are now supplying their project managers with tools to manage projects efficiently, like seminars and training in project management sciences, to learn about scheduling techniques like Gantt charts and PERT diagrams. Project managers are also taught to plan ahead, be proactive yet flexible and creative in anticipating problems due to changes within the environment.II.2.2.   Developing the Project TeamProject teams also received significant raining steps. These training steps are performed to give projects teams the capability to write project specifications, estimating time, developing budgets and planning procedures within the project. The training will enhance the efficiency of the project team in planning the project. The more efficient the planning process, the easier the implementation of the project becomes. Afterwards, team members are taught to develop teamwork and team pride to help ensure the project’s success. As the level of competition increases, businesses realize the increasing value of providing project managers and project teams with those type s of trainingII.2.3.   Developing the Information Technology Department  In order to fulfill the need to have project visibility across its processes, companies and project managers turn to Information Technology. IT initiatives are the choice of 77% project managers having been surveyed, Compare to 69% believing that methodology improvement and staff training are the most crucial problems (Chaakravarty, nd).II.2.4.   OutsourcingHaving limited resources and time to manage projects efficiently, companies begin considering outsourcing the project management systems. More than 50% of companies surveyed stated that they only have 1-9 project managers on the company’s staff, others are outsourced. 25% of these surveyed companies have 10-25 project managers on staff and 39% of the companies surveyed fully outsourced their project management function or considering it.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Asian Horror in Movie A Tale of Two Sisters

Asian Horror in Movie A Tale of Two Sisters The genre of horror has been one of the popular genres that have started developing in the movie business. This has been harnessed by the free access of television and cinemas across the world. Various causes can be attributed to this sudden change of events; however, no one can explain why most of the individuals in the society tend to appreciate it despite being unrealistic and fictitious (Corrigan 6).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Asian Horror in Movie A Tale of Two Sisters specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though most of its contents are fiction, it is a mistake to assume that horror movies are primitive and plain. Naturally, horror movies are known to exemplify traditional and uncouth characteristics, and the directors of the films are perceived to non-conversant with the changes in the society. In my opinion, I would argue that all the sectors of the art cinema have majority of mediocre crews and minority bein g good crews, and horror genre is no exception. Among the very few intriguing and genius horror movies, the focus will be on The Eye (Gin gwai; dir. Pang Brothers, 2002, Hong Kong), Tell Me something (dir. Chang Yoon-Hyun, 1999, South Korea), and A Tale of Two Sisters (Janghwa, Hongryeon; dir. Kim Ji-woon, 2003, South Korea). The three films denote a classic horror genre, and the directors have undertaken a massive work when it comes to editing, cinematography, and sound design of the films. A Tale of Two Sisters is a true ploy of horror movie, which is denoted by the use of framing. Ideally, inventive framing has been used to enhance attentiveness of the audience, drawing goose bumps, and eliciting stifled gasps. The movie commences with a short scene describing psychiatric ward. The doctor is preparing to interview his patient, who in turn happens to be an ugly and scary young woman, and her faced has been covered by long hair. The doctor wants to know what happened to her, but th e scene fades and directs the audience to a view inside a car that is travelling to the countryside. Kim’s disorienting positions and broad-view, reveals pans that aims at generating fright in the movie. It parades out the Korean horror themes that are familiar to the viewers. This includes haunted children, children’s bonds that are strong enough to challenge death, oppression on women, neurotic stepmothers, excessive femininity, and ineffectual fathers (Corrigan 56). The two teenage sisters, Mun Geun-Yeoung and Im Su-Jeong arrive at their opulent situated in the countryside home after they had visited a psychiatric hospital. Su-Jeong undertakes a commanding performance while her sister is meek and on the receiving end. The whole scene portrays Yeom, their stepmother, as anxious and restless. She tries her best to make the two girls comfortable, although they had been involved in frequent confrontations.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's se e if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Im believes that their stepmother had a dark past that she is hiding from them, and does not trust her house either. The truth, which encompasses the family’s relationship, is tangled and cannot be resolved quite easily. Kim’s remedy is a muddled montage that aims at re-dressing the final scene; however, it does not solve the issue but complicates them further. The act may be disappointing given the unusual over-the-head and behind-the-head shots that are accompanied by the fresh blocking in necessitating a horror scene. The shots generate a deafening moments that frightens the audience and moves toward realizing a rational conclusion. The movie is successful as it does not demand explanations on some amazing acts; thus, allowing the directors to gently incorporate fear and guilt on the characters and viewers. In positing these characteristics, A Tale of Two Sisters is successfully in en hancing the character’s anxiety throughout the movie. This ensures that the horror acts denotes reality, and is able to haunt the viewer, several days after watching the movie (Corrigan 18). Despite the movie’s impact and creation of horror themes by Kim, there are minor criticisms that have been subjected to the movie. The movie is slow, and the audience may find it difficult to follow the film. It takes a long time for it to reach climax and build the steam on the audience. Although, slow films cannot be disputed if the subject matter is realized at a given period, horror movies need not have to involve many issues before instigating the theme of horror in the scene. In addition, the information provided is not enough for the audience or viewer to understand the exact acts that happened- it is full of suspense. Though guessing and speculation is part of the stylistic devices that movie writers employ, some of the aspects would have been simplified in an attempt to re duce or minimize the puzzle. As the film is a success in harnessing the horror atmosphere, some of the scenes do not necessitate narrative when they are reviewed. They are solely there to generate tension among the viewers. For instance, the scene where Su-yeon is seen hanging her feet in water while something is prowling below her feet, the scene where Su-mi comes across bloody thing in the refrigerator, and where the duvet of Su-yeon is pulled off (Maxted 124). These few examples tend to exemplify a direct fiction on the viewer, as most of these acts are not real- they are exaggerated.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Asian Horror in Movie A Tale of Two Sisters specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Eye, on the other hand, owes some of its success to its canny tapping in both local (Hong Kong) and Hollywood horror texts, but it succeeds by partaking of an ascendant contemporary pan-Asian discourse of horror. The Eyeà ¢â‚¬â„¢s most immediately identifiable shared generic element is, of course, the protagonist’s ability to see ghosts, which she has in common not only with the young protagonist of The Sixth Sense, but with many other horror protagonists. Sydney Wells (Helen) was blind since her childhood life. She receives corneal transplant that restores her vision, which she had lost during her childhood period when Helen, her sister, shot her on the face using a firecracker. After undergoing surgery, Sydney is able to see blurred images. However, it may be perceived to be normal phenomenon when one undergoes a cornea transplant after a long period without an eye. However, the shadowy figures, in which Sydney sees, are ominous and quite different from the images of real people. In one occasion, she saw two shadowy figures, whereby the first one was leading an elderly woman away at night; the elderly woman was sleeping next to her bed in the hospital. The following morning, when she wakes u p, she found out that the woman has died. After the death of the woman, Sydney continues seeing the woman though the images are blurred, and she cannot figure out what she is doing. Cinematography plays vital role in this scene. The camera lens is smeared with Vaseline to make the images blurred, and this is done for the half-an-hour footage shot that is undertaken. A significant twist here is that she is not at first aware it is ghosts she is seeing; this is narrative made possible in that she has not been able to see since the age of two years (Choi and Wada-Marciano 23). The theme of unresolved issues from the past is also naturally common to many films with ghostly themes. The Eye primarily features spirits who just happen to be in transit and those needing to tie up emotional loose ends that just happen to have died in Helen’s vicinity. However, on one level, it does evince some of the sense of personal guilt of indebtedness or connection between the haunter and the haun ted present in ghost films of the more vengeful variety. Still another broader thematic repercussion of the narrative device of having the dead visible amongst the living is a heavy emphasis on the existence and close interrelationship of the past and the present. This idea resonates at numerous levels in The Eye, not least in settings themselves.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The initial setting of Hong Kong is imaged much as it is in reality as at once a city of modern high-rises and highways and of disused public spaces, where a ghost would feel perfectly like home. Hong Kong’s architectural variegation is even alluded to in dialogue at one point, when a waiter at an older and indeed haunted roast meat restaurant explains the situation in Hong Kong. The emphasis on multilinguality points to another distinctive and central theme in The Eye, which links motives of transnationalism and haunting, to that of confusion over identity. Helen’s interest in her own identity can be seen from the moment her new vision begins to come into focus. Her first request is to be taken to the bathroom so that she can gaze herself in a mirror. This curiosity and interest turns to mystification and alarm; however, she realizes that some of her visions may be someone else’s. Though the horror scenes are cheaply incorporated into the movie, it makes the au dience jump more than once. In addition, the slicker look and the bigger budget boost some of the scenes despite being mere copies of the scenes of Hong Kong movie. In particular, one of the scenes involving a restaurant belonging to a Chinese is modified to a nice effect, therefore, displaying originality of the movie. Palud and Moreau are keen to ensure that the movie does not become one of the scenes of Ghost Whisperer. Tell Me Something is one of the South Korean thrilling and horror genres. In 1999, the movie was dubbed hard-gore thriller due to its magnificent horror traits that is imminent in the whole episodes of the movie. The success is attributed to the slick trailer, big budget on marketing campaign, and the drawing supremacy of the two leaders. As such, with the movie’s rich cinematography, Tell Me Something was in high demand during the late 20th century. The movie commences with mouth-gaping scene. A number of garbage bags begin to appear, in Seoul, totally fi lled with human body parts of the victims of murder. The case falls in the arms of Detective Jo, one of the disgraced soldiers who have subjected to brutal acts by their senior counterparts. Jo collaborates with Oh, and they quickly analyze the cases presented to them with an aim of getting a clue of the incident. The two cops learn that the bodies were of three friends who worked at Chae Su-yeon museum. The film uses neon-drenched settings in an attempt to enhance the effect. Director Chang understands the need to create a requisite atmosphere, as he inculcates Tell Me Something with tension and creepiness associated with horror movie. The sound effect demonstrates the demonic and war-like atmosphere and the audience feels that they are in that ‘dark’ atmosphere characterized by evil spirits and war (Choi and Wada-Marciano 48). The scenario is also boosted by Shim and Han’s underplayed performances, and the low-key script that gradually unveils as the movie cont inues. The script is well choreographed especially on the visualizations of sporadic killings, where Chang includes severed limbs, dissections, large amounts of blood, and decapitated heads. Indeed, for the viewers with faint heart, the movie should be viewed on an empty stomach. For its two-hour running time, the movie engages the audience through suspense, and drawing them closer on the mystery surrounding the episodes. However, the last scene Tell Me Something falls apart. The scheme that embodies the killer is overwhelming and is overly elaborated leaving the audience with confusion. Though the movie ends in a climax, orchestrated by great soundtrack and well-focused shots, the scene does not make any sense. It is hard to link the events that led to the final episode. More upsetting is the postscript of film, which introduces logic-defying scene that twists courtesy of the mysteries of murder. Although some of the scenes prompt for viewing of subsequent episodes, others require motivations from the characters in order to make the movie cohesive. Ideally, numerous discussion groups in the internet, have been instigated in an attempt to discuss and unravel the mystery behind the movie’s convolute d narrative. In my opinion, the confusion might have been brought about by the negligence of the crew and directors, omissions of some of the scenes that would have made the movie cohesive. The most obvious logical gaps that exist in the film are on the way Detective Oh can link unrelated scene that denotes crime to the murders that took place. Indeed, if the ending had been characterized by lack of confusion, Tell Me Something would have gained wholehearted recommendation from the viewers. However, when the audience pardons the directors missteps and non-inclusion of some scenes, then there are more positive attributes to the film than the negative ones. The film posits all the stylistic devices embodied by an artwork including suspense, entertainment, and v isual thriller. In conclusion, the three films are the real works of the horror genre. The films should not only be recognized on the face value of its antique but intention of the developers of the films. Although, the essay has focused only on three films; most of the horror films have implied meaning in the contemporary society, and should not be taken lightly. The themes and devices used such as sound design, cinematography and editing have been observed by the directors of the film in an attempt to fit into the market. Therefore, the films are a classic of a horror genre. Choi, Jinhee and Wada-Marciano Mitsuyo, eds., Horror to the Extreme: Changing Boundaries in Asian Cinema. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2009. Corrigan, Timothy. A Short Guide to Writing about Film. New York: Longman, 2009. Maxted, Anna. A Tale of Two Sisters. New York: Dutton, 2006

Monday, October 21, 2019

Legalized same-sex adoption Essay Example

Legalized same Legalized same-sex adoption Essay Legalized same-sex adoption Essay Legalized same-sex adoption has become the most popular issue in the political debate. It has become a big question whether same-sex couples possess a God-given privilege to adopt children (since they are unable to produce children). Supporters of gay adoption say argue that homosexual parents would be good examples for genetically-predestined homosexual kids. Others consider this as a foolish idea as not many children turn out to be homosexual adults. Same sex adoption is notorious as it is totally against the Christian moral code. Traditional and original Christian principles oppose gay marriage and gay adoption. Let us examine how the Christian philosopher Saint Thomas Aquinas would approach the topic of ‘traditional Christianity and gay adoption’ Thomas Aquinas said that every law should reflect the common good. According to him, the law must help shape one’s lifestyle. Thomas Aquinas defined three types of law; eternal law, natural law, and human law. Thomas Aquinas defined natural law as the involvement of the person in the eternal law. According to him, natural law is the natural inclination to the proper end. He explained human law as the application of natural law. Human law is never outdated and conventional as it is accepted and followed by various communities. The issues like the legalization of gay adoption happen when the strictly defined civic law comes at odds with the natural law and overcomes it. Gay marriage and gay adoption becomes legal where natural law is seldom considered. Traditional Christian theology has always been against unnatural followings. For example, while saying about the city of Sodom in Genesis 19, we can find that â€Å"the outcry against its people has become great before the Lord ( Gen. 19:13). Sodom broke the natural law of union between a man and woman. Then anger of Lord rose against Sodom and Gomorrah and destroyed it. Traditional Christian theory has always been against all unnatural practices among human beings. Christianity encourages natural relationship between a man and women where they bring about children. While going through the eyes of Christian philosophers like Thomas Aquinas we can say that they would verily oppose gay adoption as they did for gay marriage. If gay marriage is unnatural, gay adoption is also unnatural. Christian theology defines sex as a means to bring about children. Aquinas had considered ultra-conservative views of the church on the topic of sexuality and attempted to rationalize them by introducing his own natural law. According to Thomas Aquinas any form of sex where the intention to produce children is not involved is sin. He says that sex is purely for the purpose of reproduction to ensure the continuance of the human race, only in the context of a monogamous relationship, and not for simple physical pleasure. Thomas Aquinas who defends the normal relationship between a man and woman would never appreciate the abnormal means of brought up of children. Aquina s who considers sex as the means of child production would never find it natural to entrust gay couples with children. He may find gay adoption as unnatural as gay marriage. According to Thomas Aquinas all humans are part of Gods plan and therefore subject to eternal law, where we are guided to Gods supernatural end in a higher way (47). He says that everybody should follow Gods eternal law through a natural law. Something is supposed to be part of natural law if there is a natural inclination to it and if nature does not produce the contrary, (51-52). Unnatural sex is opposed by both Old Testament and New Testament Bible .According to Jude 7 Sodom and Gomorrah acted immorally and indulged in unnatural lust. In the book of Ezekiel we can find that â€Å"Sodom committed abominable things (Ezek. 16:50) (homosexual and heterosexual actions). People of Sodom and Gomorrah preferred unnatural behaviors. They did not accept the virgin daughters of Lot. Homosexual actions are abominable thing that set off God’s wrath. No Christian theology can support any aspect of these unnatural behaviors. Gay marriage is detestable in the eyes of Lord. Book of Leviticus says that You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination. . . . If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall be put to death, their blood is upon them (Lev. 18:22, 20:13). Christian theology support normal marriage and normal bring up of children by their parents. Sex is considered to be exclusively for chi ld birth. Unnatural homosexual behavior is opposed by every aspect of Christian theology. Thomas Aquinas says that promiscuity is contrary to the nature of man because to bring up a child requires both the care of the mother who nourishes him and even more the care of the father to train and defend him and to develop him in internal and external endowments (78). Aquinas is against the practice of a male should have the option of leaving a female who has had a child even if it is properly provided for, making an indirect case against divorce (79). Aquinas thus would never support gay adoption and he was always against the concept of gay marriage. Angelo Amato, Titular Archbishop of Sila Secretary the philosopher had a similar approach to morality, human nature, and good life. Angelo Amato’s thoughts are in agreement with that of Aquinas’s. According to him, â€Å"the approval or legalization of evil (homosexual couples) is something far different from the toleration of evil†. The natural law includes the law of sexual intercourse and the education and protection of offspring. He also defends the natural law (natural sexual relationship between a man and woman). Angelo Amato is also against the unnatural sexual intercourse and brought up of children. He thus never opposes the concepts of gay marriage as well as gay adoption. Angelo Amato said that the protection of offspring should be by the natural parents. Keeping the children under homosexual couples is unnatural and ultimately brings no good. Marriage is supposed to be for sex and reproduction. Homosexuality, gay marriage and gay marriage are against t he natural intuition. Gay marriage and gay adoption are against the goals of the state. It is against traditional Christianity. Angelo Amato thus supported Thomas Aquinas. Thomas Aquinas said that â€Å"when God created us, he gave us natural instincts that reflect the general moral principles of natural law†. According to him, God has implanted an instinctive intuition in every human being, which should be used for a good purpose. The instinctive intuitions embedded on humans make them live, reproduce and live as rational creatures. According to Thomas Aquinas, human beings possess an innate moral consciousness. This innate moral consciousness or synderesis is an intuitive habit; it is a vulnerable habit. Aquinas says that â€Å"Our instinctive synderesis faculty informs us of the highest principle of natural law: we should act according to our proper end† Gay marriage and gay adoption are against the natural institutive intuition that is implanted on human beings by God. Bible says that â€Å"cursed is the man who sleeps with an animal†. Traditional Christian theology is thus against all forms of unnatural physical relationship. Thomas Aquinas’ theories have defended the Christian principles on relationships. Everything that is unnatural are forbidden by the Christian theology and therefore by Thomas Aquinas. Children are supposed to be under the care of their natural parents. The Christian evaluation of gay adoption is similar to that of gay marriage.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Effective Error Correction In Class

Effective Error Correction In Class Error correction is often done by the teacher providing corrections for mistakes made by students. However, it is probably more effective for students to correct their own mistakes. In order to do this, students and the teacher should have a common shorthand for correcting mistakes. Aim: Teaching students to correct their own mistakes Activity: Mistake identification and correction Level: Intermediate Outline: Discuss the importance of correcting your own mistakes with students. Point out that information arrived out inductively (by their own reasoning) is more likely to be retained over the long term.Go through the shorthand used in the following exercise for various types of mistakes.Ask students to first find mistakes in the short biography.Give students the correction marks copy of the short biographyAsk students to correct the short biography based on the correction marks.Give students corrected version of a short biography. Correction Key T tenseP punctuationWO word orderPrep prepositionWW wrong wordGR grammarY upside down word missingSP spelling Find and mark the mistakes in the following short biography. Jack Friedhamm was born to New York on October 25, 1965. He began school at the age of six and continued until he was 18 years. He then went to New York University to learn Medicine. He decided on Medicine because he liked biology when he was at school. While he was to University he met his wife Cindy. Cindy was a beautiful woman with hair long black. They went along for years before they decided getting married. Jack began to work like a doctor as soon as he graduated to Medical School. They had two children named Jackie and Peter, and have lived in Queens for the past two years. Jack is very interested painting and likes to paint portraits of his son Peter. Compare your corrections with the image at the top and then correct the mistakes. Compare your corrected version with the following: Jack Friedhamm was born in New York on October 25, 1965. He began school at the age of six and continued until he was 18 years old. He then went to New York University to learn Medicine. He decided on Medicine because he liked biology when he was at school. While he was at University, he met his wife Cindy. Cindy was a beautiful woman with long black hair. They went out for years before they decided to get married. Jack began to work as a doctor as soon as he had graduated from Medical School. They have had two children named Jackie and Peter, and have lived in Queens for the past two years. Jack is very interested in painting and likes to paint portraits of his son Peter. Short Biography with Mistakes Printing PageShort Biography with Correction Marks Printing PageCorrect Version of Short Biography Printing Page

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Financial Management in Nonprofit Organizations Essay

Financial Management in Nonprofit Organizations - Essay Example urban, sub-urban, rural area. Most of the non-profit organizations are small in size. For-profit organizations are basically profit motivated. They do not depend on funds or donations but depend on other sources like loans, debentures, ventured capital and leasing among others. The accumulated profit is divided among the stockholders themselves rather than investing it in the company. Both the organizations have their own mottos and goals. The paper intends to discuss the financial management in the non-profit organizations. Also, the study aims to compare the management of finance in non-profit organization with that of for-profit organizations. The different head under which the classifications are made include sources of funds, use of debts, performance evaluation, and utilization of funds and governance mechanism. This investigation also comprise of a dedicated concluding section along with certain recommendations. Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 4 Introduction 4 Comparison and Contrast of the Application of Financial Management Techniques in Nonprofit and For-Profit Organizations 5 Sources of Funds 5 Performance Evaluation for Non-Profit Organizations and Profit Organizations 7 Use of Debts 8 Governance Mechanism In Non- Profit Organizations 9 Utilization of Profit Earned 10 Conclusion 12 Recommendations 13 References 15 Introduction Financial management primarily refers to proper planning or management of activities of an organization for its smooth operation. In other words, the economic management of an organization to achieve the desired objectives is termed as financial management. Essentially, it is the technique of proper utilization of resources so as to achieve the preferred targets. Financial management includes the financial evaluation, financial planning and financial control. Financial planning entails future planning that assists in identification and management of risks and threats. It is generally the judgment of the performances of t he organization (Economy Watch, 2010). Non-profit organizations are those that utilize the raised funds to achieve the organizational goals rather than distributing or sharing among themselves. The objective of non-profit organizations is to achieve the set goals rather than achieving profit. Non-profit organizations generally ignore profit distribution. Non-profit organizations are also referred as the voluntary organizations as they provide primarily charitable services towards their stakeholders. However, for-profit organizations significantly vary from non-profit organizations. For-profit organizations, as the name signify, primarily desires to earn profit. The decision totally depends on the management if they want to retain the total profit with them or would like to spend sum on the operations of the organization. Generation of profit is the basic motto of for–profit organizations. There are basically four categories of the enterprises, i.e., sole proprietorship, partn ership, joint venture and company that come under for-profit organizations (Porter & Norton, 2010). Comparison and Contrast of the Application of Financial Management Techniques in Nonprofit and For-Profit Organizations Financial planning consists of proper strategizing in relation to financial aspects and its implementation. Financial planning of an organization depends on its objectives. The objectives of both non-profit and for-profit

Living a Fast-Paced Life Style Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Living a Fast-Paced Life Style - Essay Example For some people, working all the time is a rush, a â€Å"natural high.† They like waiting until the last second so they have to crunch to get things done. They enjoy working at the 11th hour. Feeling the pressure that they know they need to get the work done, they are able to get it done quickly and efficiently, much more so then if they weren’t working against the ever-ticking clock. Also, some people like being busy, and would rather have a million of things to do then to have to sit around and do nothing. Some people find a pile of paperwork more refreshing than a break, and would rather have to speedily work around the clock then sit and be idle. They are the â€Å"busy bees† of our society, and they keep working even when they don’t have to, working all the time quickly is their passion and their love for life is lived through it. There are also negatives to living such fast paces live style. If you are constantly in motion, you tend to wear out quickly, as discussed in "Burned Out and Bored" by Ronald Dahl. If you are not moving all the time you can become bored, and you also can miss out on the finer things in life. Ronald Dahl also discusses the problem of sleep deprivation becoming a habit for kids who are constantly seeking the next exciting thing to do when they find a time, and sometimes compromise sleep for this. Bad habits like this, he says, can be hard to break later in life. People can also become moody, and emotional problems can arise from always being in motion. On the other hand, I believe you need a balance. I find it is nice to sometimes have a lot of work that needs to get done, as it helps me work quickly and efficiently. I also, however, find that I need time to just be alone and chill sometimes. This helps be receive both the benefits of being in a fast-paced world, as well as the benefits of slowing down when I need to.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Pre Optometry Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Pre Optometry - Personal Statement Example This is because Optometry would provide me with an opportunity of being part of a community and to interact with other people as I offer them services. In the preparation for training in this profession, I engaged myself in different activities. For example, I was a member of the Phi Theta Kappa- International Honor Society of the Two-Year College ---05/13/2012. My participation here provided me with the opportunity for the development of leadership and service, and this stimulated my interest to become an Optometrist in order to exercise the leadership and services skills obtain from my participation. I have several qualities and experiences in Optometry. I have a 2-year experience in the Optometrist field which has increased my aptitude and motivation. I practiced at Steven Lowinger EyeCare, where I worked with three optometrists who graduated from NOVA, with two of them having more than 10 years experience in the field. This made me learn a lot and acquire a lot of knowledge in the field. I am also part of the VOSH Southeast Organization team that went to Chiapas, Mexico to provide eye treatment to over 2000 people in the region on July 2014. The eye exams we did for free increased my skills and knowledge on eye and visual examination services. My previous achievements have also motivated me into the Optometrist field. For example, I received a gold medal from The President"s Volunteer Service Award (Gold Level) on 07/09/2013 for achieving over the required number of hours in service over a period of 12 months. This quite inspired me to become an optometrist in order to be of s ervice to people with eye problems. My future career goals is to offer eye examination services to different people from different locations, and this is after I graduate as an Optometrist. I would also like to provide lectures to other Optometrist students and help them acquire the necessary knowledge and skills. I would also like to operate

Business Process Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business Process Analysis - Essay Example The above-depicted model can be better analyzed with reference to Tesco, which possess similar components that entail ‘inputs’, ‘guides’, ‘outputs’ and ‘enablers.’ The inputs of Tesco in relation to the stated model can be better understood by ascertaining the involvement level of the suppliers with the company while procuring products. As illustrated above, enablers denote the functions of operations, manpower resources, group skills and innovation of products along with services. In this regard, Tesco adheres to this component of the model in the form of employing qualified as well as skilled personnel and also integrating advanced technological systems in its operational functions. The third element of the model is ‘output’, which involves selling products via physical outlets and online stores. Tesco conducts its business by offering its products to the customers by making them visit physical stores and also purchas ing the same through online. The final stage of the Burlton IGOE Model i.e. ‘guides’ lays stress upon introducing effective policies and regulations towards conducting business in an efficient manner. Tesco tries to ensure that proper governance is being followed throughout the organization with the introduction of several policies and standards associated with health and safety and human resource among others. The company focused on fulfilling its core objectives by maintaining an ethical code of conduct and evading negative situations.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Alternative Energy Source Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Alternative Energy Source - Essay Example In essence, some of the issues that connect to the development of alternative energy sources are consistent with the view that the developmental needs of humanity are entirely dependent on the availability of sufficient clean energy, which does not pose any significant threat to the eco-systems around the world. On this note, it becomes important to consider the fact that debate on the production of alternative source of energy is also understood together with the need to lessen the kind of crises that have defined competition over the existing forms energy. A major factor of consideration is the fact that the economies of nearly all the countries around the world are driven by the influence of energy on other sectors, which affect the performance of markets and other indicators. Challenges of monopoly over oil, for instance, have contributed to fears in the developing and the developed world of dominance and manipulation of the economic order in ways that could impact negatively on the aspect of globalization and liberalization of world economies. Consequently, it becomes necessary to investigate available options to the question of alternative sources of energy and the need to resolve current issues affecting the development of energy levels. A wide range of research work has indicated that the world supply of oil has reduced drastically over the past century. Fears continue to grip the developed and the developing world over the question of sustainability and the impact of the reduction on the stability of the world economy. On this matter, research has shown that many countries will face significant challenges in the running of their industries as the fuel levels continue to reduce. Industrialization has been accepted as an important benchmark of development. Countries continue to grapple with the challenge in various ways that underscore the different levels of impact across the globe. Estimates from multiple sources indicate

Influences of muticultures from second generation such as Essay

Influences of muticultures from second generation such as Korean-American on self-constructing - Essay Example They often feel confused about their identity. This has been of particular interest and has prompted me to study whether own culture has a stronger influence in self-formation or one gets influenced by the culture in which one has grown up. According to Hofstede, culture is something that is learned and therefore is embedded in a society or nation (Wong, Everett & Nicholson, 2008). It is a mental programming that is developed early in life and reinforced later through the process of socialization. Even the natural act of thinking is modified by culture. Culture has a deep impact on the life of people and hence it provides a structured and highly consistent way of living that is not deliberately constructed. Culture is an underlying system that shapes personality traits and behaviors. The period between 18 to 25 years of age is the time when young adults develop a subjective sense of identity through experimentation and explorations (Xu, Shim, Lotz & Almeida, 2004). This period is very critical for the young adults as the ethnic identity of the young forms and develops during this period. The ethnic identity, defined as the individual’s sense of self within an ethnic group, becomes an integral part of the ethnic young adults social identity and a vital component of his or her self-concept or self-image. Furedi (2007) while discussing how the culture of fear is formed, states that people vary greatly in how much culture they apply in their lives. This determines the kind of people they will become. This process of ‘self-forming’ draws from the symbolic resources of the wider culture. Habits of thought and feeling influence the way individuals make sense of their experience. Bilingualism is common among the immigrants in America. A study of the second generation Asian Americans revealed that bilingualism impacts academic achievement and social mobility (Mouw & Xie, 1999). Replacing the immigrant language by English has provoked sentiments from the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Alternative Energy Source Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Alternative Energy Source - Essay Example In essence, some of the issues that connect to the development of alternative energy sources are consistent with the view that the developmental needs of humanity are entirely dependent on the availability of sufficient clean energy, which does not pose any significant threat to the eco-systems around the world. On this note, it becomes important to consider the fact that debate on the production of alternative source of energy is also understood together with the need to lessen the kind of crises that have defined competition over the existing forms energy. A major factor of consideration is the fact that the economies of nearly all the countries around the world are driven by the influence of energy on other sectors, which affect the performance of markets and other indicators. Challenges of monopoly over oil, for instance, have contributed to fears in the developing and the developed world of dominance and manipulation of the economic order in ways that could impact negatively on the aspect of globalization and liberalization of world economies. Consequently, it becomes necessary to investigate available options to the question of alternative sources of energy and the need to resolve current issues affecting the development of energy levels. A wide range of research work has indicated that the world supply of oil has reduced drastically over the past century. Fears continue to grip the developed and the developing world over the question of sustainability and the impact of the reduction on the stability of the world economy. On this matter, research has shown that many countries will face significant challenges in the running of their industries as the fuel levels continue to reduce. Industrialization has been accepted as an important benchmark of development. Countries continue to grapple with the challenge in various ways that underscore the different levels of impact across the globe. Estimates from multiple sources indicate

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Health Care Reform (case study) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Health Care Reform (case study) - Essay Example nges in the US health care system; and the proposed plan would not reduce healthcare costs until US citizens change the way they perceive their own health improvement. The plan was strongly supported by the Wellpoint CEO Angela Braly, one of the most powerful women in the United States. She states that â€Å"the high and rising cost of healthcare in America is just not sustainable† (as cited in Dayen, 2009). Braly criticizes the previous healthcare system administered by the federal government as she believes that it was inefficient to promote healthcare quality. She also believes that previous policy was a threat to government’s social and fiscal obligations and welfare of the American society. In addition, she recommends that insurance companies have a significant role to plan in promoting this healthcare initiative. However, Republicans, as reported by Herwood (2010) strongly oppose the proposed healthcare reform initiative and they argue that the Obama administration is deceiving the country through this healthcare reform. Republicans argue that the low government reimbursement rates under this plan would adversely affect the financial interests of doctors. In addition, this reform proposal is likely to increase government spending by approximately $2 trillion. They also fear that the initiative will cause to create numerous bureaucracies, which in turn negatively affect the government’s role in healthcare. Finally, they argue that new fees and other charges will be indirectly passed to clients through premium increases. While analyzing the Obama’s new healthcare reform legislation, it seems that this plan does not fit with the recommendations discussed above. The healthcare reform plan did not give any focus on socio-cultural aspects of the American society. Hence, the reform cannot effectively meet its aimed objectives, particularly cutting of health care costs. In addition, this legislation caused nearly 20 million of Americans to lose their employer

Monday, October 14, 2019

Morality and Obligation Essay Example for Free

Morality and Obligation Essay 1. Two preliminary steps taken, that may be necessary, before one can intuitively appreciate the rightness of an action are thinking fully about the consequences of an action. In other words, think before you act. Also give thought (consideration) to the persons involved in said action or your relation(ship) with the persons involved. 2. An action is considered morally good in addition to being right when it is the right thing to do, while also stemming from a good place. When the person or agent performs said act because it is right, from a feeling of obligation, a morally good act is also right. 3. According to Prichard, an action done from a sense of obligation, there is no purpose consisting either in the action itself or in anything which it will produce. A motive, being something that moves one to act, can be the sense of obligation, an action done from a sense of obligation can indeed have a motive. 4. Avirtuous act is done from a desire that is intrinsically good. A moral act may be done from obligation. There cant be an obligation to act virtuously, because we can only feel an obligation to act or do something. We cannot, however, feel an obligation to act from a certain desire 5. It is a mistake to expect moral philosophy to prove through argumentation that we ought to fulfill our obligations, because moral rightness cannot be demonstrated, only apprehended directly by an act of moral thinking. The sense of obligation is a result of a moral thought or thoughts. Moral philosophy can provide reflection on the immediacy of our knowledge of moral rightness and the intuitive recognition of the goodness of the virtues.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Ebola Virus: History, Occurrences, and Effects Essay -- Ebola Hemo

"The only sound is a choking in his throat as he continues to vomit while unconscious. Then comes a sound like a bed sheet being torn in half, which is the sound of his bowels opening at the sphincter and venting blood. The blood is mixed with his intestinal lining. He has sloughed off his gut. The lining of his intestines have come off and are being expelled along with huge amounts of blood" (Preston 17). Ebola, a virus which acquires its name from the Ebola River (located in Zaire, Africa), first emerged in September 1976, when it erupted simultaneously in 55 villages near the headwaters of the river. It seemed to come out of nowhere, and resulted in the deaths of nine out of every ten victims. Although it originated over 20 years ago, it still remains as a fear among African citizens, where the virus has reappeared occasionally in parts of the continent. In fact, and outbreak of the Ebola virus has been reported in Kampala, Uganda just recently, and is still a problem to this very day. Ebola causes severe viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and monkeys, and has a 90 % fatality rate. Though there is no cure for the disease, researchers have found limited medical possibilities to help prevent one from catching this horrible virus. The Ebola virus can be passed from one person into another by bodily contact. Airborne transmission of Ebola has not yet been confirmed, as there is no substantial evidence of this occurring. Researchers are still to this day observing the ways of transmission of this virus from one person to the next. In previous outbreaks, this infection has often occurred among hospital care workers or family members who were caring for an ill or dead person infected with the virus. Blood and body fluids contain large amounts of virus, thus transmission of the virus has also occurred as a result of hypodermic needles being reused in the treatment of patients. Under-financed health care facilities in countries such as Zaire, Gabon, and Sudan find reusing needles a common practice. This contributes the vast amount of fatalities of this virus in these cities. The general geographic region that has been most affected by the different strains of the Ebola virus is Central Africa, namely the cities of Zaire, Sudan, and Gabon. The first known occurrence of Ebola was found in a man by the name of Charles Monet, who had currently taken a trip... ...ving things carry viruses in their cells. Even fungi and bacteria and inhabited by viruses and are occasionally destroyed by them. A virus makes copies of itself in a cell until eventually the cell gets pigged with virus and pops and the viruses spill out of the broken cell. If enough cells are destroyed, such as they do in the case of Ebola, the host dies. A virus does not "want" to kill its host. That is not in the best interest of the virus, because then the virus may also die, unless it can jump fast enough out of the dying host into a new host. Ebola Zaire, a type of strain of Ebola, attacks every organ and tissue in the human body except skeletal muscle and bone. Small blood clots begin to appear in the bloodstream. The blood then thickens and slows, and the clots fit together in a mosaic. The mosaic thickens and throws more clots and the clots drift through the bloodstream into the small capillaries, where they get stuck. This shuts off the blood supply to various parts of the body, causing dead spots to appear in the brain, liver, kidneys, lings, intestines, and all through the skin. Works Cited Preston, Richard. The Hot Zone. New York: Random, 1994.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Graduation Speech -- Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

Writing this commencement speech for you tonight was hands-down one of the most stressful things I have ever done. For days, I toiled over what to speak about, worried that as you sat there anxious to graduate I would bore you, or say the wrong thing. I tried to write a witty and funny speech designed to entertain you, but a lack of ability ultimately forced me to give up. This speech is the culmination of hours of brainstorming, three rejected rough drafts, editing galore, and finally me just putting my heart and soul on paper. It, as practically all commencement speeches do, contains all the expected words of praise and well wishing. It does not say anything that has not been said in the past, or that will not be said in the future, save this: We, Billwood High School's Class of 2006 will never die. Our class is like a classic movie. Just as the force will always be with Luke, and just as Maverick and the Ice Man will always be our heroes, this class of 2006 will always exist. As an actual group of people, of course, we will go our separate ways. Even the members of the Breakfas...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Media usage

I have attached a copy of my media log for the week of May 14-21, 2007. Over the last week, I spent: 3 hours and 25 minutes online, 90 minutes watching a DVD, 15 hours and 33 minutes watching television, 4 hours and 45 minutes reading, 1 hour and 13 minutes reading magazines, 17 minutes reading the local paper, and 1 hour and 21 minutes using Blackberry.   The log shows a marked preference for foreign media, with the possible exception of my Blackberry and the Toronto Star, which I use to keep up with friends and local events respectively.   Even though the Internet is used to accomplish everything from communications to entertainment, it is still strange that television places first in my personal â€Å"Most Popular Medium† contest. It is such an old form, first distributed widely in the 1950s.   Yet, I spend more time watching it, than e-mailing, checking on friends at Facebook, or watching news clips on CNN.   Perhaps it retains its popularity because of its versatility.   In Television Culture, we learn that â€Å"social change does occur, and television is a part of this movement†(Fiske, 45).  Ã‚   Because it keeps changing to keep up with the important issues of a particular time, television ensures its relevance and future existence. Up until now, I have not realized how much time I spent watching television—not unusual since many people from all walks of life lament the amount of time people spend on television.   I notice that I haven’t recorded any time listening to the radio, iPod, or a CD.   Maybe music has been pushed into the unconscious or we have come to the point where radio is no longer a medium of note.   With the advent of satellite radio, the mp3 player, podcasting, and Russian sites selling music at a fraction of the price, there would be little reason to maintain a radio, with the possible exception of warning the population if disaster strikes. The newspaper is also becoming more overlooked as people switch to CNN Online and her sister sites.   In order for newspapers to remain competitive, they need to take the focus off of world events and concentrate on covering the local area extensively.   Such close area coverage will never be found on an international news site such as BBC or CNN. While I spend a moderate amount of time on social sites like Facebook, it has not replaced telephone and in-person conversations.   While my weekly telephone/text conversations seem to pale in comparison to my online time, face-to-face interaction is preferred. The second most used medium in this study is the book—one of the earliest mediums for disseminating information in the world.   However, book sales today are the direct result of successful multi-media campaigns.   I’ve started reading The Secret by Rhonda Byrne—an Australian author with the grand ambition to change the world. She proposes to do this by putting together a panel of successful people to educate people about the power of thought; that one can make his dreams come true provided he avoids thinking about what he does not want.   Because more people favor television and Internet sources over books, the writers of The Secret produced a DVD, advertised on the Internet, magazines, and appeared on Oprah.   Because of this successful multi-media campaign, it had reached #1 on Amazon’s bestseller’s list.  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Harry Potter Novels and other Law of Attraction clones are taking this approach to boost sales. It is important to keep up with the world at large and Canadian television imports many American shows such as the Oprah Winfrey Show, the Dr. Phil Show, The View, Girlfriends, and The Bachelor. With such wide exposure to American media, it is little wonder why Western Canadian and US culture are so similar. Works Cited Fiske, John. Television Culture. NY: Routledge,1987

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Criminal Behavior: the Negative Attribution of Societal Nurturing

Running head: SOCIAL CONTROL, STRAIN, SOCIAL LEARNING, AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Criminal Behavior: The Negative Attribution of Societal Nurturing Criminal Behavior: The Negative Attribution of Societal Nurturing Imagine someone telling you that â€Å"you are the product of your environment†, what does that mean? Imagine a girl who has decided to pursue a career as a stripper. All of her friends are strippers and the new people she meets are those she has met while stripping. Would it be easy for her to quit that job?What would happen if she moved away and was surrounded by well-educated individuals? – Individuals who gave her strong social support and a good positive influence. What about the youth living in a deprived neighborhood, surrounded by small hopes and dreams for the future and low supervision? Is it possible that they become just like everyone else in their community? Let us compare an individual who lives in a disorganized community with an individual in a more organized and structured community, which one is more likely to develop criminal and delinquent behaviors?The purpose of this study is to investigate the measurable affirmation of criminal behavior contributing to a selective demographic based on three theories: social control theory, social learning theory, and strain theory. The idea in which the environment is the context within which all social relations occur has been brought to our attention by Lewin (1943) and can be used to make concept of a major factor in developing criminal and delinquent behaviors.Lewin proposed that the fundamental principle of social psychology research is that human behavior is a function of not only the person, but of the environment as well (Opotow & Gieseking, 2011). A large body of research has been done regarding the human behavior as a function of their â€Å"life space† and the person’s environment, such as neighborhoods, schools, work, and their friendships. Lewin states that pa rticular places can serve as â€Å"contact zones† (Opotow & Gieseking, 2011) and support certain kinds of interaction.These â€Å"contact zones† are formed between people and the physical characteristics of the built and natural world they live in (Opotow & Gieseking, 2011). Social control theory, strain theory, and social learning theory were all proposed by a variety of researchers strongly supporting the link between environment and the development of criminal minds. The theories supported are thought of as individual-level processes (Hoffman, 2003).The social control theory, for example, is the thought that community disorganization lessens bonding mechanisms by making parental supervision and interpersonal attachments more vague (Hoffman, 2003; Elliot et al. , 1997; Shaw & McKay, 1931). With community disorganization comes little to no control. The community is usually distinguished by residential instability and a high ratio of broken families as well as single p arents; reducing the likelihood of efficient socialization and supervision of the youth.A research study was conducted by Baskin & Sommers (2011) to determine whether placement instability played a role in developing delinquent/criminal behavior; results indicated that the children with more instability were more likely to be arrested and have a criminal record. Community disorganization reduces social support structure and weakens an important source of conformed bonding and success in socialization: effective parenting.Empirical research has sustained the idea that the influence of social bonds differs in each type of community and disorganized communities have a negative effect on the competence of social bonds to greatly reduce delinquent behavior. A lot of this is seen in our own communities and the communities surrounding us. It is all about where the person lives, where he goes to school, and whom he chooses to hang out with.The initial development of the strain theory was de veloped by Merton (1968) where he proposed that opportunity structures greatly affect the ability to grasp common cultural goals, such as the pursuit for monetary gain (Hoffman, 2003). The individual-level component of the strain theory is basically the strain of striving to reach goals within various forms of opportunity structures that could lead to adjustments such as deviant behaviors, delinquency, and even crime.With the assumption that opportunity structures differ in each community, it is safe to say that the effects of strains caused by the disunity between goals and means on deviant behavior will differ in every community (Hoffman, 2003). In other words, the strained youth in disorganized communities have a more realistic picture of their situation, so criminal adaption’s become more likely. Agnew (1992) elaborated this theory to form a concept by broadening the notion of strain with adding a variety of sources, such as families, schools, and cognitive skills (Hoffma n, 2003).Agnew assumes that the deprived communities are more likely to have strained youths and that these communities will suffer from more blocked or â€Å"strained† opportunity structures (Hoffman, 2003; Agnew, 1999). What is meant by Agnew’s new definition of this strain theory is that these communities develop an atmosphere that is based on anger and frustration; this could mean a greater chance of â€Å"going with the flow† to maybe prove themselves as â€Å"tough guys† to other communities.The social learning theory or differential association proposes that criminal associations and favoring conflict differ within each community type; it is this differentiation that explains the distribution of crime rates (Hoffman, 2003; Cressey, 1960; Reinarman & Fagan, 1988). Individuals embedded within certain communities are either exposed to or opposed to criminal behavior. Akers (1998) sees the sources in these differences: â€Å"The less solidarity, cohes ion, or integration there is within a group†¦ the higher will be the rate of crime and deviance† (Hoffman, 2003).In other words, social structural influences on criminal behaviors are fully reconciled by social learning processes. Many researchers stress that the DSM-IV diagnosis applied to criminals completely misses the mark and the idea of their environment is not enough (Stuart, 2004). Some researchers believe that sociological and environmental theories do not include the important concept of individual choice: â€Å"Crime resides within the person, not the environment† (Stuart, 2004). Other research, however, supports the importance of living in a good environment to prevent the development of a criminal mind.Although some researchers may suggest the treatment should be to focus on changing the patterns of thinking of criminals and to hold them accountable for every violation of moral thoughts, other researchers now believe that these efforts are slightly mis directed (Hoffman, 2003; Stuart, 2004, Baskin & Sommers, 2011). Other research suggests that even with punishment one can only discourage the criminal act to a greater or lesser degree, restrain the secret manifestation of a criminal urge, but the punishment ill not reconstruct the criminal mind, or avert its development in the individual (The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1928). The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (1928) proposes that the criminal mind is not different from that of the sane mind. Of course, many individuals do deviate themselves from the strain of their environment and negative influences simply because of their own personal values and the will to want to better themselves and their way of living. The proposed study will examine the moderating effects of the environment on developing criminal behaviors based on where the individuals grew up/came from.The study is based on the social control, strain, and social learning theories. There have be en very few studies that examine the impact of these theories and their consequences on the general individual-level processes that affect the person’s adaption’s to an environment exposed or opposed to possible criminal behaviors. Furthermore, by investigating these theories, this study might be able to determine which variables, if not all, indicate the development of criminal minds and delinquent behaviors.It is expected that participants will display more criminal and delinquent behaviors in the more strained and disorganized communities. Some participants will be from a more deprived area of town; they are considered to be part of a disorganized as well as strained community. Others will be from an average to more up scaled living environment; they are part of a more organized community who are influenced by everyone around them to want to have a better living. Each group of participants is expected to react to the way of their environment; to adapt to their †Å"way of living†.However, in general, participants in a more disorganized and strained community will suffer from more blocked opportunity structures, poor supervision, negative bonding mechanisms, and poor residential stability because despite having personal choices, an individual is always a product of his environment. Method Participants There will be approximately 850 participants in the proposed study that will serve as a representative sample of ninth grade students from U. S. high schools. Participants will be selected from the National Center of Education Statistics (NCES).In exchange for their participation, participants will be given a raffle ticket for a chance to win a variety of small prizes. Design The proposed study will be using the longitudinal method. The independent variables will be the type of community the participants live in (organized/disorganized), their friendships, monetary strain, blocked opportunity structures, and parental supervision. The depen dent variable will be their acquired behaviors, which will be examined (according to the variation of delinquency theories), by the data drawn from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS).The NELS is â€Å"a longitudinal study designed to explore the impact of families and schools on a variety of educational, vocational, and behavioral outcomes† (Howard, 2003). The friendship variable will be used to examine the learning theory, the stress for monetary gain and blocked opportunity structures will be used to examine the strain theory, and parental supervision will be used to examine the social control theory. Procedure The representative sample for this study will be drawn by NELS.This sample will then be interviewed. At the beginning of the interview, the parents of the participants as well as the participants themselves will be specifically informed that all private information will be strictly confidential and will be used for research purposes only. The parents will then be given an informed consent to read through. As the participants from the subsample come in for the interview, they will be asked a variety of questions regarding delinquent behavior. All of this data will then be entered in NCES.The NELS data will then be used to examine the community characteristics that condition the impact of pertinent variables on deviant behaviors in the modern lives of these adolescents. Data from NCES will match their residential addresses to census identifiers. Census tracts are used to examine the impact of neighborhoods on various outcomes. The participants will then be interviewed during their senior year in high school. Again, asking them a large sum of questions regarding deviant behaviors. The same data will then be entered in NCES and NELS to retouch the previous information.The issue being utilized in this study is the individual’s environment on his behavior based on a long period of time. The questions asked by examiners will per tain to their relationship with their parents, their thoughts on fighting and violence, cultural goals for monetary gain, and so on. Measures As mentioned before, the friendship variable will be used to examine the learning theory; the stress for monetary gain will examine the strain theory; and parental supervision will be used to examine the social control theory. Conventional definition (Howard, 2003).A conventional definition will be constructed from a set of ten questions that will ask participants whether it is acceptable to engage in deviant behaviors such as having a gun, being affiliated with a gang, fighting, vandalism, selling drugs, using drugs, and stealing. A sample question includes: â€Å"Do you believe it is acceptable to join a gang? †. Response set ranges from one (often acceptable) to four (never acceptable). The Strain Theory. Questions that examine the strain theory will be based on cultural goals for monetary gain and blocked opportunity structures: â⠂¬Å"How important is money to you? ; â€Å"Do you have a high or low chance of graduating from high school? †; â€Å"What are the chances of you joining a gang if you knew you would get lots of money? †. The responses will be based on coding: 1 if money is very important, 0 not being important; 1 if high chance of graduating, 0 if low, and so on. The Learning Theory. The learning theory will be assessed by asking four questions about their friendships. Sample questions include â€Å"Do you feel pressured to be involved in everything your friends are in? † and â€Å"Have you ver been influenced by a friend to engage in deviant behaviors? †. Response set ranges from one (always) to four (never). The Social Control Theory. This theory will be examined by parental supervision. The respondent’s parents will be asked a total of ten questions, with answer choices ranging from one (disagree completely) to four (agree completely). Sample questions include à ¢â‚¬Å"Do you believe it is important to know your child’s friends? † and â€Å"Do you believe it is important to know how your child spends his money? †.Upon completion of each interview the respondents’ will be debriefed and given their raffle ticket for a chance to win a variety of small prizes. Discussion It is expected that participants will display more criminal and delinquent behaviors in the more strained and disorganized communities. Each group of participants is expected to react to the way of their environment; to adapt to their â€Å"way of living†. If the hypothesis is supported, then each group of participants would adapt to their way of living as a reaction to their environment.Significant findings resulting from the proposed study can be used in better understanding the role of the environment on the development of human behavior. If social control theory, learning theory, and strain theory are found to magnify the chance of developin g criminal and deviant behaviors, this understanding could be applied to many different research studies and therapeutic training. Some research has already demonstrated that identifying an individual’s environmental background is quite important in understanding his criminal acts.In the psychological domain, recognizing the existing influences of each theory might be helpful in raising parental awareness of the importance of bonding mechanisms (supervision and interpersonal attachment) as well as children’s awareness of handling certain opportunity structures (cultural goals) and teaching the importance of maintaining strong values, raising society’s awareness of the importance of community organization, and implementing counseling programs.If people are made aware of the negative as well as positive effects of their environment on the development of their behavior, they might be more persuaded to maintain or develop strong values, develop cultural goals, and h ave a more positive realistic picture of their future, especially if they are living in a strained community. If the hypothesis is not supported, then there will be no difference between the influence of strained/disorganized communities and organized communities on the development of criminal and delinquent behaviors.Matching the social control, learning, and strain theories to each group of participants’ environment would have no effect in determining the possible implicit development of criminal behaviors. In this case, the type of environment (organized or disorganized community) would not justify the consequences on the general individual-level processes that affects the person’s adaption’s to the community exposed or opposed to possible criminal behaviors.Therefore, there would be no reason to raise the awareness of parents, children, and society of the importance of strong values and cultural goals when it comes to preventing the negative influences of th e community on behavior. Whether or not the message raises awareness, people would just continue â€Å"going with the flow†. Unexpected factors that can occur during this longitudinal research study, which may skew the outcome, may include the unexpected death of several participants (i. . illness, accident, gang violence), or if a participant moves to a different country. A potential limitation of this study is that it does not involve clinical assessments, which can include family history and background to determine the presence of abnormal disorders (mood disorders, personality disorders). Being aware of the presence of abnormal disorders is an important factor in determining the prevalence and etiology of criminal behavior.As a result, assessing the environment would not be sufficient to determine the risk of becoming a criminal. Also, longitudinal studies of a large sample of the population require a large number of researchers and access to certain legal databases (depe nding on the study), which takes time and a considerable amount of money. Future research could investigate other factors that might have an influence on the development of criminal behavior (i. e. race, gender, psychological and biological vulnerabilities, and individual choices).It is possible that sufficient justification to support the influences of these theories (control, learning, and strain) could also be accompanied by or perceived as different depending on these factors, such that psychological vulnerabilities (cognitive development), which can be caused by abuse, in any type of environment could influence the development of such behaviors as well. Some researchers believe that crime does not reside in the environment and others say that the idea of their environment alone is not enough.Future research should be done to investigate the measurable affirmation of criminal behavior contributing to a selective demographic based on psychological, biological, and sociological vu lnerabilities. Further investigation of the underlying causes of the development of criminal behavior is important not only to raise awareness, but to benefit our justice system as well as to contribute to the developing realm of research in psychology and criminology. References Hoffmann, John P. (2003). A contextual analysis of differential association, social control, and train theories of delinquency. Social Forces, 81, 753-785. Baskin, Deborah R. ; Sommers, Ira (2011). Child maltreatment, placement strategies, and delinquency. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 36, 106-119. Opotow, Susan; Gieseking, Jen (2011). Foreground and background: Environment as site and social issue. Journal of Social Issues, 67, 179-196. Stuart, Bryan (2004). Inside the criminal mind. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 32, 547-549. No authorship indicated (1928). The problem of the mind. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 23, 1-3.