Friday, December 27, 2019

Gastar Conjugation in Spanish, Translation, and Examples

The Spanish verb gastar is a regular -ar verb that means to spend. The conjugation pattern for gastar is similar to that of other regular -ar verbs like bajar, tratar and llamar. This article includes gastar conjugations in the present, past, conditional, and future indicative mood, the present and past subjunctive mood, the imperative mood, and other verb forms. Using the Verb Gastar The most frequent use of the verb gastar is to spend money. For example, El chico gastà ³ mucho dinero en el regalo para su novia (The boy spent a lot of money on the gift for his girlfriend). Gastar can also be used to talk about time, but in that case, it means to waste time. For example, No debes gastar tiempo jugando videojuegos (You should not waste time playing video games). In order to talk about spending time, in Spanish we use the verb pasar tiempo, as in Me gusta pasar tiempo con mi familia (I like to spend time with my family). The verb gastar can also mean to use or to use up. For example, you can say Se gastà ³ la tinta de la impresora (The printers ink got used up), or Ese carro gasta mucha gasolina (That car uses a lot of gas). In addition, gastar can mean to wear out, as in Gastaste la suela de tus zapatos de tanto correr (You wore out the soles of your shoes from running so much). Gastar Present Indicative Yo gasto I spend Yo gasto muchos là ¡pices en la escuela. Tà º gastas You spend Tà º gastas dinero en cosas innecesarias. Usted/à ©l/ella gasta You/he/she spends Ella gasta mucha electricidad en su casa. Nosotros gastamos We spend Nosotros gastamos mucha gasolina en el viaje. Vosotros gastà ¡is Youspend Vosotros gastà ¡is tiempo viendo fotos en el trabajo. Ustedes/ellos/ellas gastan You/they spend Ellos gastan mucha agua regando el jardà ­n. Gastar Preterite Indicative There are two past tenses in Spanish. The preterite tense is used to describe actions completed in the past. Yo gastà © I spent Yo gastà © muchos là ¡pices en la escuela. Tà º gastaste You spent Tà º gastaste dinero en cosas innecesarias. Usted/à ©l/ella gastà ³ You/he/she spent Ella gastà ³ mucha electricidad en su casa. Nosotros gastamos We spent Nosotros gastamos mucha gasolina en el viaje. Vosotros gastasteis Youspent Vosotros gastasteis tiempo viendo fotos en el trabajo. Ustedes/ellos/ellas gastaron You/they spent Ellos gastaron mucha agua regando el jardà ­n. Gastar Imperfect Indicative The other past tense in Spanish is the imperfect, which is used to talk about ongoing or repeated actions in the past. The imperfect can be translated to English as was spending or used to spend. Yo gastaba I used to spend Yo gastaba muchos là ¡pices en la escuela. Tà º gastabas You used to spend Tà º gastabas dinero en cosas innecesarias. Usted/à ©l/ella gastaba You/he/she used to spend Ella gastaba mucha electricidad en su casa. Nosotros gastà ¡bamos We used to spend Nosotros gastà ¡bamos mucha gasolina en el viaje. Vosotros gastabais Youused to spend Vosotros gastabais tiempoviendo fotosen el trabajo. Ustedes/ellos/ellas gastaban You/they used to spend Ellos gastaban mucha agua regando el jardà ­n. Gastar Future Indicative Yo gastarà © I will spend Yo gastarà © muchos là ¡pices en la escuela. Tà º gastarà ¡s You will spend Tà º gastarà ¡s dinero en cosas innecesarias. Usted/à ©l/ella gastarà ¡ You/he/she will spend Ella gastarà ¡ mucha electricidad en su casa. Nosotros gastaremos We will spend Nosotros gastaremos mucha gasolina en el viaje. Vosotros gastarà ©is Youwill spend Vosotros gastarà ©is tiempo viendo fotosen el trabajo. Ustedes/ellos/ellas gastarà ¡n You/they will spend Ellos gastarà ¡n mucha agua regando el jardà ­n. Gastar Periphrastic  Future Indicative   The periphrastic future is formed with three components: the present indicative conjugation of the verb ir (to go), the preposition a, and the infinitive gastar. Yo voy a gastar I am going to spend Yo voya gastar muchos là ¡pices en la escuela. Tà º vasa gastar You aregoing to spend Tà º vasa gastar dinero en cosas innecesarias. Usted/à ©l/ella vaa gastar You/he/she isgoing to spend Ella vaa gastar mucha electricidad en su casa. Nosotros vamosa gastar We aregoing to spend Nosotros vamosa gastar mucha gasolina en el viaje. Vosotros vaisa gastar Youaregoing to spend Vosotros vaisa gastar tiempo viendo fotosen el trabajo. Ustedes/ellos/ellas vana gastar You/they aregoing to spend Ellos vana gastar mucha agua regando el jardà ­n. Gastar Present Progressive/Gerund Form To form the present progressive you need the gerund or present participle (the English -ing form). Present Progressive ofGastar està ¡ gastando Is spending Ella està ¡ gastando mucha electricidad en su casa. Gastar Past Participle To form perfect tenses like the present perfect, you need the past participle of the verb. Present Perfect of Gastar ha gastado Has spent Ella ha gastado mucha electricidad en su casa. Gastar Conditional Indicative To talk about possibilities, you can use the conditional tense. Yo gastarà ­a I would spend Yo gastarà ­a muchos là ¡pices en la escuela si me gustara escribir. Tà º gastarà ­as You would spend Tà º gastarà ­as dinero en cosas innecesarias si fueras millonario. Usted/à ©l/ella gastarà ­a You/he/she would spend Ella gastarà ­a mucha electricidad en su casa, pero siempre apaga las luces. Nosotros gastarà ­amos We would spend Nosotros gastarà ­amos mucha gasolina en el viaje si fuà ©ramos en carro. Vosotros gastarà ­ais Youwould spend Vosotros gastarà ­ais tiempo viendo fotosen el trabajo, pero el jefe no os lo permite. Ustedes/ellos/ellas gastarà ­an You/they would spend Ellos gastarà ­an mucha agua regando el jardà ­n, pero por suerte ha llovido bastante. Gastar Present Subjunctive The present subjunctive is used in sentences with two clauses, when the speaker is expressing a desire, doubt, denial, emotion, negation, possibility, or other subjective situations. Que yo gaste That I spend La maestra espera que yo gaste muchos là ¡pices en la escuela. Que tà º gastes That you spend Tu madre no quiere que tà º gastes dinero en cosas innecesarias. Que usted/à ©l/ella gaste That you/he/she spend Carlos no cree que ella gaste mucha electricidad en su casa. Que nosotros gastemos That we spend Andrea no quiere que nosotros gastemos mucha gasolina en el viaje. Que vosotros gastà ©is That you spend El jefe no permite que vosotros gastà ©is tiempo en el trabajo. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas gasten That you/they spend El jardinero recomienda que ellos gasten mucha agua regando el jardà ­n. Gastar Imperfect Subjunctive The imperfect subjunctive can be conjugated in two different ways: Option 1 Que yo gastara That I spent La maestra esperaba que yo gastara muchos là ¡pices en la escuela. Que tà º gastaras That you spent Tu madre no querà ­a que tà º gastaras dinero en cosas innecesarias. Que usted/à ©l/ella gastara That you/he/she spent Carlosno creà ­a que ella gastara mucha electricidad en su casa. Que nosotros gastà ¡ramos That we spent Andrea no querà ­a que nosotros gastà ¡ramos mucha gasolina en el viaje. Que vosotros gastarais That you spent El jefe no permità ­a que vosotros gastarais tiempo viendo fotosen el trabajo. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas gastaran That you/they spent El jardinero recomendaba que ellos gastaran mucha agua regando el jardà ­n. Option 2 Que yo gastase That I spent La maestra esperaba que yo gastase muchos là ¡pices en la escuela. Que tà º gastases That you spent Tu madre no querà ­a que tà º gastases dinero en cosas innecesarias. Que usted/à ©l/ella gastase That you/he/she spent Carlos no creà ­a que ella gastase mucha electricidad en su casa. Que nosotros gastà ¡semos That we spent Andrea no querà ­a que nosotros gastà ¡semos mucha gasolina en el viaje. Que vosotros gastaseis That you spent El jefe no permità ­a que vosotros gastaseis tiempo viendo fotosen el trabajo. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas gastasen That you/they spent El jardinero recomendaba que ellos gastasen mucha agua regando el jardà ­n. Gastar Imperative The imperative mood is used to give commands.There are slightly different versions for positive and negative commands. Positive Commands Tà º gasta Spend!  ¡Gasta dinero en cosas innecesarias! Usted gaste Spend!  ¡Gaste mucha electricidad en su casa! Nosotros gastemos Let's spend!  ¡Gastemos mucha gasolina en el viaje! Vosotros gastad Spend!  ¡Gastad tiempo viendo fotosen el trabajo! Ustedes gasten Spend!  ¡Gasten mucha agua regando el jardà ­n! Negative Commands Tà º no gastes Don't spend!  ¡No gastes dinero en cosas innecesarias! Usted no gaste Don't spend!  ¡No gaste mucha electricidad en su casa! Nosotros no gastemos Let's not spend!  ¡No gastemos mucha gasolina en el viaje! Vosotros no gastà ©is Don't spend!  ¡No gastà ©is tiempo viendo fotosen el trabajo! Ustedes no gasten Don't spend!  ¡No gasten mucha agua regando el jardà ­n!

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Analysis Of The Movie Duck - 1707 Words

waste any more time or the oden will get cold and once again you re trekking up the mountain all the way to the top you let out a woop as you see a house at the top you race inside as the others follow behind you no way it s empty luffy whined zoro then pointed out the very suspicious fire place much to luffy s confusion zoro pushed the fire place out of the way an entrance was shown wow that s so cool zoro how did you find it even an idiot could find this just as we were about to walk down the stairs zoro shouted duck you push luffy and nami to the ground as the world around you explodes everything hurts but it s more of a dull ache when you remembered what happens next you clench your fist angrily you didn t want to watch as gezo s dream the oden he made with his life to be destroyed but you knew there was no way out of it the reason luffy fought drago was because that beast stepped on gezo s oden you watch silently as gezo stood in front of his grandson taking the blow the kid wou ld have he falls to the ground as his oden flips over the only thing keeping the food in was the lid drago at fist thinks it s gold before the pot is kicked away showing it s true occupancy stop toboi yells he s still holding on to the rock that he planned to throw at drago that s the oden my grandpa put his life into for woonan so people like you shouldn t touch it drago gives toboi a nasty smirk before stomping on the food luffy watch on in silence you knew he snappedShow MoreRelatedRacism Present In Disney/Pixar Films. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Big Bang Theory (1367 words) Essay Example For Students

Big Bang Theory (1367 words) Essay Big Bang TheoryIt is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big Bang. Before the Big Bang, all of the matter and radiation of our present universe were packed together in the primeval fireballan extremely hot dense state from which the universe rapidly expanded.1 The Big Bang was the start of time and space. The matter and radiation of that early stage rapidly expanded and cooled. Several million years later, it condensed into galaxies. The universe has continued to expand, and the galaxies have continued moving away from each other ever since. Today the universe is still expanding, as astronomers have observed. The Steady State model says that the universe does not evolve or change in time. There was no beginning in the past, nor will there be change in the future. This model assumes the perfect cosmological principle. This principle says that the universe is the same everywhere on the large scale, at all times. 2 It maintains the same average density of matter forever. There are observational evidences found that can prove the Big Bang model is more reasonable than the Steady State model. First, the redshifts of distant galaxies. Redshift is a Doppler effect which states that if a galaxy is moving away, the spectral line of that galaxy observed will have a shift to the red end. The faster the galaxy moves, the more shift it has. If the galaxy is moving closer, the spectral line will show a blue shift. If the galaxy is not moving, there is no shift at all. However, as astronomers observed, the more distance a galaxy is located from Earth, the more redshift it shows on the spectrum. This means the further a galaxy is, the faster it moves. Therefore, the universe is expanding, and the Big Bang model seems more reasonable than the Steady State model. The second observational evidence is the radiation produced by the Big Bang. The Big Bang model predicts that the universe should still be filled with a small remnant of radiation left over from the original violent explosion of the primeval fireball in the past. The primeval fireball would have sent strong shortwave radiation in all directions into space. In time, that radiation would spread out, cool, and fill the expanding universe uniformly. By now it would strike Earth as microwave radiation. In 1965 physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson detected microwave radiation coming equally from all directions in the sky, day and night, all year. 3 And so it appears that astronomers have detected the fireball radiation that was produced by the Big Bang. This casts serious doubt on the Steady State model. The Steady State could not explain the existence of this radiation, so the model cannot best explain the beginning of the universe. Since the Big Bang model is the better model, the existence and the future of the universe can also be explained. Around 15 to 20 billion years ago, time began. The points that were to become the universe exploded in the primeval fireball called the Big Bang. The exact nature of this explosion may never be known. However, recent theoretical breakthroughs, based on the principles of quantum theory, have suggested that space, and the matter within it, masks an infinitesimal realm of utter chaos, where events happen randomly, in a state called quantum weirdness. .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 , .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 .postImageUrl , .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 , .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0:hover , .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0:visited , .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0:active { border:0!important; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0:active , .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0 .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub820a029bc94a9cc74d96b6d0eea1dc0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Nutrition and Food in Popular Culture Health Nutri Essay4 Before the universe began, this chaos was all there was. At some time, a portion of this randomness happened to form a bubble, with a temperature in excess of 10 to the power of 34 degrees Kelvin. Being that hot, naturally it expanded. For an extremely brief and short period, billionths of billionths of a second, it inflated. At the end of the period of inflation, the universe may have a diameter of a few centimetres. The temperature had cooled enough for particles of matter and antimatter to form, and they instantly destroy each other, producing fire and a thin haze of matter-apparently because slightly more matter than antimatter was formed.5 The fireball, and the smoke of its burning, was the universe at an age of trillionth of a second. The temperature of the expanding fireball dropped rapidly, cooling to a few billion degrees in few minutes. Matter continued to condense out of energy, first protons and neutrons, then electrons, and finally neutrinos. After about an hour, the temperature had dropped below a billion degrees, and protons and neutrons combined and formed hydrogen, deuterium, helium. In a billion years, this cloud of energy, atoms, and neutrinos had cooled enough for galaxies to form. The expanding cloud cooled still further until today, its temperature is a couple of degrees above absolute zero. In the future, the universe may end up in two possible situations. From the initial Big Bang, the universe attained a speed of expansion. If that speed is greater than the universes own escape velocity, then the universe will not stop its expansion. Such a universe is said to be open. If the velocity of expansion is slower than the escape velocity, the universe will eventually reach the limit of its outward thrust, just like a ball thrown in the air comes to the top of its arc, slows, stops, and starts to fall. The crash of the long fall may be the Big Bang to the beginning of another universe, as the fireball formed at the end of the contraction leaps outward in another great expansion.6 Such a universe is said to be closed, and pulsating. If the universe has achieved escape velocity, it will continue to expand forever. The stars will redden and die, the universe will be like a limitless empty haze, expanding infinitely into the darkness. This space will become even emptier, as the fundamental particles of matter age, and decay through time. As the years stretch on into infinity, nothing will remain. A few primitive atoms such as positrons and electrons will be orbiting each other at distances of hundreds of astronomical units. 7 These particles will spiral slowly toward each other until touching, and they will vanish in the last flash of light. After all, the Big Bang model is only an assumption. No one knows for sure that exactly how the universe began and how it will end. However, the Big Bang model is the most logical and reasonable theory to explain the universe in modern science. ENDNOTES 1. Dinah L. Mache, Astronomy, New York: John Wiley ; Sons, Inc., 1987. p. 128. 2. Ibid. , p. 130. 3. Joseph Silk, The Big Bang, New York: W. H. Freeman andCompany, 1989. p. 60. 4. Terry Holt, The Universe Next Door, New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1985. p. 326. 5. Ibid., p. 327. 6. Charles J. Caes, Cosmology, The Search For The Order Of The Universe, USA: Tab Books Inc., 1986. p. 72. 7. John Gribbin, In Search Of The Big Bang, New York: Bantam Books, 1986. p. 273. BIBLIOGRAPHY Boslough, John. Stephen Hawkings Universe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980. Caes, J. Charles. Cosmology, The Search For The Order Of TheUniverse. .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb , .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb .postImageUrl , .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb , .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb:hover , .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb:visited , .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb:active { border:0!important; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb:active , .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc04e6ecca55f766b2195878ded698abb:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Happiness and Fulfillment Sample Essay USA: Tab Books Inc., 1986. Gribbin, John. In Search Of The Big Bang. New York: Bantam Books, 1986. Holt, Terry. The Universe Next Door. New York: CharlesScribners Sons, 1985. Kaufmann, J. William III. Astronomy: The Structure Of TheUniverse. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. , Inc., 1977. Mache, L. Dinah. Astronomy. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc.,1987. Silk, Joseph. The Big Bang. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1989.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Violence Does It Have An Effect Essays - Dispute Resolution

Violence: Does It Have An Effect? Watching violence in movies increases the risk of some people's acting aggressively. Many people have problems linking media violence with violence in real-life. Only small percentages that watch violence are responsible for violent acts. Most people unaffected by it. Even though doctors, lawyers, juries, and judges cannot establish a direct link between media violence with violence in society, they still can make conclusions from data. Media violence is one thing that causes people to do violence. Since media violence is much more vicious than that which children normally experience, real-life aggression appears bland by comparison. Children do not always realize this is not the way things are handled in real-life. They come to expect it, and when they do not see it the world becomes bland and in need of violence. The children then can create the violence that their mind craves (Door 127). Another thing that increases the risk of violence is watching another person praising it. Parents who solve their problems with violence are teaching their children to do the same. Barbara Escamilla, an Omaha counselor and social worker, said, Fathers who laugh and cheer at violent action movies are condoning such actions.... Another counselor from Omaha said, If a kid hears his dad laughing about having beat somebody up when he was 13, then that father is creating an underlying philosophy in the family. Joseph Stankus, an Omaha psychologist, said, If sombody doesn't show any regard for the results of violence, then maybe you give it to them (qtd. in Nelson np). Watching violence and listening to others talk about violence can lead to aggression. Some places are more admissible of aggression than others. Aggressive behavior was more acceptable in the city, where a child's popularity rating with classmates was not hampered by his or her aggression. In bigger cities, crime and violence are inevitable, expected, and therefore, are left unchecked and out of line. In other research among U.S. children, it was discovered that aggression, academic problems, unpopularity with peers, and violence feed off each other. This promotes violent behavior in the children. A child watches violence without evening knowing that it could lead to aggression (Huesmann 166). Many studies have taken place over the years to see to see effects on violence were. In a CNN News broadcast, Lisa Price and the Associated Press speak some studies. The first one was an eight-year by Doctor Brandon Centerwall of the University of Washington. Statistics from this study show that long-term exposure of children to television violence has led to an increase of an extra ten thousand homicides a year in the U.S.. The American Medical Association found that violent crime between the years 1976 and 1992 among 13 and 17 year-old teenagers rose 106 percent, and the violence in the media had something to do with it (np). Another study revealed that people... are more prone to hold attitudes that favor violence and aggression as a way of solving conflicts. These viewers also tend to be less trusting of people and more prone to see the world as a hostile place. A Massachusetts study states, There is a relationship between viewing media violence and the acceptance of sexual assault, violence and alcohol use. As a result, specific levels of violence become more acceptable over time. Then, it takes more and more graphic violence to shock (and hold) an audience (Rund np). In an experiment on television violence on memory for commercial messages, participants saw commercials embedded in violent and nonviolent film clips. After viewing clips, participants completed several recall and recognition memory test. In all the experiments, participants who saw a violent film clip had poorer memory for commercial than did participants who saw nonviolent film clips. Participants also reported their mood after viewing a film clip but before completing the memory tests. Anger mediated between television violence and commercial memory. Television violence increased anger, and anger, in turn, impaired memory for commercials (Bushman np). Over the years, violence in movies has influenced people so much that crimes have been committed. These crimes have been brought to court, even to the Supreme Court. The Georgia Supreme Court ruled that extremely violent movie, such as, Natural

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

buy custom HMIS Standards essay

buy custom HMIS Standards essay Each and every one of us has visited a hospital either in need of medical attention or just to visit someone admitted in the hospital. One is always given a form to fill that contains personal details like the names and address of the patient seeking for medical care. Most of us do not take the initiative to find out why these details are required to be filled and left at the hospital. On a repeat visit, a patient is asked for their name again and their file is produced to be used by the doctor for continuous treatment. These records are kept in the hospital for years and can be requested for at a later time for reference purposes when one has a medical condition that calls for the patients prior records to be assessed. During a visit to the hospital, one is sees a doctor who then diagnoses the illness if any and the patient is given medicines to make them feel better. Medicine is described by the United States National Library of Medicine as the complete science used in the diagnosis, following treatment and also prevention of diseases and other damages including mental, that damage the human body. Medicine is therefore a branch of science that deals with the treatment of diseases by the use of drugs and other nonsurgical means. An agent such as any drugs whose purpose is to treat disease is also referred to as medicine. Thus medicine refers to and encompasses both the science and the treatment of diseases. The world has become a technology hub and everyone today is looking to become technologically savvy to fit into the ever changing and ever evolving modern world. Technology has made a big significant difference in the way that things in all areas are run contributing to making work easier and more accessible due to the onset of computers that are today used in the storage and processing of data. The medical world has not been left behind and it has also embraces the modern trend. The application and incorporation of information technology into the healthcare sector is what in essence is referred to as Medical Informatics. Basically it involves the overall understanding and the use of tools and skills in an effort to use and share information and apply the same in the delivery and promotion of healthcare services to the masses (Pabrai, 9). Medical informatics reflects the substantive contribution of both patients and the medical professionals in the use of healthcare data and other re lated data. The use of medical informatics has been traced back to have started in the 1950s influenced by the continued increase in the use of computers as computation devises and was referred to them as medical computing or medical computer science and was widely used for dental projects at the National Bureau of Standards (Tan, 5) Standards refer to the commonly used guidelines, rules, and conditions that are related to a particular process, in tis case medicine, and the relevant management systems practices that regulate them. Data standards in medicine refer to a specified set of the most widely used data elements in the effective collection and storage of patient information and other relevant data to enable ease of access to more consistent and comparable data for use throughout all levels and sectors of medicine necessary to support improved doctor-patient interaction. Standards also include the collection and reporting of financial statements and statistical data from the daily operations of health organizations around the country. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Actwas enacted by the U.S. Congress and signed by the President. The HIPPA seeks to protect health insurance coverage previously accessed by workers and their families when they transition or lose their jobs. The Administrati ve Simplification of HIPAAs provisions, requires the establishment of national standards for electronic health care transactions and national identifiers for providers, health insurance plans, and employers (Pabrai, 7) The Administration Simplification provisions also provided for the security and privacy of healthcare data and set the standards tailored at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the nation's health care system mainly by encouraging the widespread use of electronic data interchange in the U.S. health care system (Pabrai, 8) The Health Management Information Systems refers to a software application that is used to store all the information gathered of the people seeking for medical attention in hospitals around the United States. The HMIS stores information on the general characteristics and the individual needs of the patients as gathered and this helps the relevant doctors and other medical care givers to come up with the relevant and most effective ways and means of controlling and treating a patient and in the offering of any other required health services. When information is stored in a good and organized way that is easy to be accessed, read and understood, then it is easy for the people concerned to look at and compare the data collected then or earlier to assist a patient on a return visit in the same hospital or in a different hospital from any part of the country. It is important to have this kind of data stored in an accessible manner since many different people may at one time require the sa me data order to assist a patient like in the case of an emergency. The Hospital Management Information Systems have tailored at providing the essential standards for use in the collection, sharing and safeguarding of any stored data. A Unique Patient Identifier is a value that is permanently assigned to a particular person for the sole reason of identification purposes and is unique throughout the whole healthcare system across the country since it is not shared with anyone else. It facilitates the positive identification of an individual for prompt healthcare services delivery. A UPI has the potential to enable a patient to access prompt care through the easy healthcare information access using the UPI, hence reduce the time one needs to spend at a health facility. The UPI can also be used in the aggregation of health information for any further analysis and research necessary. Encryption and other data security methods should be used to protect the information and identity of an individual. In cases where medical tests results are being communicated, the security of an individual should be guaranteed (Beaver, 12). Only the people who are directly involved in the actual care of the individual should be allowed a ccess to the medical records, like the patient himself and their doctor only. The DICOM standards are controlled by the DICOM Standards Committee which is mandated to create and maintain high standards in the sharing of biomedical and other therapeutic diagnosis across all fields that use any form of digital imaging or any related data. In any case where one plans to adopt a major HMIS standard like this one, there is set parameters that one should have in place. These include but are not limited to a secure network and digital storage system and also current encryption software to protect personal patient data (Beaver, 34). Medicine is a very professional field and it is very important for the overall healthy existence of the human kind. It takes only trained professionals to ensure the proper running of a medical centre. As such it is important to safeguard the professional language that is only used and understood by trained professionals. As much as technology changes, it is important to protect medical records by upholding a code that can only be used and understood by the trained people because these kind of information in the wrong hands can turn out to be very dangerous. If the medical field became too lax in the language used and adopted any common language, then it would eventually lead to a breach because it would mean that any other tom, dick and harry can easily access patient records and even tamper with them. Today with the use of the standardization codes, patient and doctors records remain safe even if a layman were to access them because the person would not easily understand what the r ecords mean and if they decided to tamper with the same, then the doctor would easily realize that the records were tampered with at first glance. This would ensure that the doctor or care giver corrects the record again before commencing treatment. It is therefore justifiable beyond any reasonable doubt that the use of standardized codes for referencing of medical data should be upheld for the sole comprehension of the medical staff. Buy custom HMIS Standards essay

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Latimer essays

Latimer essays On Sunday, October 24, 1993, Robert Latimer killed his daughter, Tracy Latimer. Robert Latimer placed Tracy in his truck and ran a hose from the exhaust pipe into the cab of the truck. Tracy was killed by carbon monoxide poisoning and Robert Latimer confessed to the murder. What makes this case so unique and debated is that Tracy Latimer had cerebral palsy. Robert Latimer has been in court several times and has only served minimal time in jail. On November 16, 1994, he was first convicted of second degree murder and sentenced to life in jail with no parole for ten years. This ruling was overturned due to a technicality in the case. The second conviction occurred on December 1, 1997. Rather than receiving the minimum sentence for second degree murder, Judge Noble made an unprecedented exemption from the second degree murder minimum sentence. He sentenced Robert Latimer to one year in a provincial jail and one year of house arrest on his farm in Wilkie, Saskatchewan. Both the crown and the defence appealed the conviction. The case is still in the courts. Our legal system is not yet equipped to deal with euthanasia cases. The law is very unclear about consequences for euthanasia. Robert Latimer deemed that Tracy was better off dead and that he killed her out of love, but who has the right to determine who should live and who should die? Society tends to define people by their ability to produce. Anyone who is unproductive is seen as being of little worth. According to a survey conducted by Angus Ried Group, 73% of Canadians believe Robert Latimer should receive a more lenient sentence and of that 73%, 41% said mercy killing should not be against the law. I believe society needs to re-evaluate its stand on this moral issue Robert Latimer killed Tracy because he said that he could no longer allow Tracy to endure all the pain she was experiencing. People call it mercy killing but I believe Tracy was murdered. In some people'...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Individual Annotated Bibliography (IAB) (5 articles) Assignment

Individual Annotated Bibliography (IAB) (5 articles) - Assignment Example The paper is a representation of annotated biography towards conducting serious research on ethical principles. Banerjee, S. B 2008, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly’, Critical Sociology, Vol. 34 no.1, pp. 51-79. The picture of corporate social responsibility is relative in diverse business environments. This is because CSR handles various activities as well as provide varied regulations with an aim of providing sustainability in corporate citizenship. Consequently, it is relative due to varied social responsibilities and curtailed interests, which can legitimize or motivate the power of larger corporations. In order to bring out the difference, Banerjee came up with an article, which looks at corporate responsibility from diverse angles. This is important in the study of ethical standards for deeper understanding and awareness creation. Banerjee provides a segmented description of corporate discourses that get applied in the process of sa tisfying varied social responsibilities (Banerjee 2008, pp. 52). In as much as diverse interpretation of ethical standards prevails, it is emancipator for serious corporate citizenship as a means of social responsibility. ... This is the same case scenario with 2002 Charles Perrow journal, which described the result of incorporating political, social and economic forces to be a legal revolution. According to Banerjee, social responsibilities require jurisdictions that regulate corporate powers within an institution. This is because reverse of sovereign prerogative leads to a crisis of responsibility forcing unethical business practices. This also includes the period for providing services to the public in a bid to exercise corporate powers. Corporate social responsibility, therefore, plays significant role in identifying and formulating jurisdiction, as well as a mode of operation. This is extremely influential in the study of ethics as it provides relevant information on awareness and detailed research (Banerjee 2008, pp. 60). The journal, in addition, provides defined relationship to corporate social responsibilities with respect to stakeholders and sustainability. This is to ensure no confusion existen ce in conducting research. It also equips learner with the basic knowledge required for the study of ethical principles. For instance, the journal provides the definition of corporate social ethics according to the world business council (Banerjee 2008, pp. 62). This is crucial for research as it gives the link between various stakeholders including the local community, employees and the society. From this perspective, it is a commitment towards ensuring a communal working environment. This is different from the Australian standards association, which associates corporate social responsibility to compliance with set rules and regulations. In this instance, the journal plays a significant role in providing an all round definition of

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Compound helicopter Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Compound helicopter - Literature review Example The Nelson Speed Limit holds true for helicopters even today. 3 Although helicopters have achieved what is considered the â€Å"Holy Grails of powered flight,†4 because of their ability to fly vertically, their limited capacity in speed and maneuverability have led aircraft builders to explore ways to augment performance metrics. One of the solutions offered by research is the compounding of the basic design of conventional helicopters with additional components to help achieve better speed and efficiency. Background: Compound Helicopters A compound helicopter is a conventional helicopter that has undergone modification with the addition of several components for the purpose of augmenting and enhancing basic performance metrics such as lift-to-drag ratio, propulsive efficiency and maneuverability.5 The most overt additions in a compound helicopter are fixed wings.6 Compound helicopters are often called hybrids because they are a combination of conventional helicopters, which a re powered by rotors, and fixed wing aircrafts like planes, although some compound helicopters do not have wings. Compound helicopters have the important capability of conventional helicopters - VTOL (vertical take-off and landing).7 What additional features precisely make a helicopter compound has not been unanimously agreed however. John Watkinson, for example, described a compound helicopter as one in which the production of forward thrust in cruise is not up to the rotor but by some other device while Ray Prouty depicted them as having wings and a propulsion device, which could be a jet engine, ducted fan, or propellers for the purpose of alleviating the rotors from lifting or propelling tasks.8 Leishman simply defined it as one in which additional parts are appended for the purpose of enhancing and augmenting basic performance metrics.9 Figure 1 shows a diagram of a compound helicopter with a four-blade main rotor atop its body as is commonly found in conventional helicopters. However, fixed wings or flaperons can also be observed attached to its fuselage. Fixed wings function to off-load most, if not all, of the rotor’s duty to lift the helicopter at high speed. The presence of a ducted propeller at the rear can also be observed, which likewise serves the function of taking away from the main rotor the task of driving the helicopter forward. Some compound helicopters may or may not have either fixed wings or a propulsion mechanism other than the main rotor, but all additional appendages in a compound helicopter serve the purpose of driving it at speed not available to conventional helicopters.10 Fig 2 Diagram of a Compound Helicopter11 2.0 History of Compound Helicopters The first known compound helicopter was developed in Germany in the 1930s by Anton Flettner, but two other models were also developed in that part of the world. The Fl 184 had two airscrews, fitted with propellers at each end facing at opposite directions, and attached to either s ide of the helicopter fuselage. The airscrews functioned to counter the torque effect of the three-blade rotor and helped the aircraft propel forward. The Wn

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Politics of Health in America Essay Example for Free

Politics of Health in America Essay The healthcare system in America is one of the hot button issues in this and every election because things are only getting worse, while not coming close to getting better. Rising healthcare costs are bringing brought on by huge hospitals that can charge as much as they want for service. Compounding the problem is the fact that many Americans cannot afford healthcare insurance in order to foot the bill for their expensive care. As the Michael Moore film, Sicko, indicates, the healthcare crisis in America is far reaching and there does not seem to be a solution on the horizon. With more and more people missing out on insurance because of basic primal greed from hospitals and insurance companies, there exists a huge problem that is sure to hinder the development of American society. Facing the biggest problems in light of this healthcare crisis are women, who need a more advanced form of care than their male counterparts. Without access to healthcare insurance, millions of women are not able to acquire the medical care that is essential to their overall health.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The American healthcare system is one that is designed to rely primarily on health insurance. Without health insurance, a majority of both basic and advanced medical procedures would not be possible for any people. The primary problem with the system is that now, health insurance companies are not doing their job anymore. Instead of being an affordable option for common people who seek to protect themselves against medical emergency, these companies are now in the business of gouging patients and withholding insurance to those that are less fortunate. The American model is not the prevailing system that is used elsewhere in the world. In places like Canada and in most of Europe, nationalized healthcare is the order of the day. Those governments do not mess around with insurance companies and they make sure that healthcare is readily available to anyone that needs it. This is an expensive, but effective way to make sure that each person is cared for. Women are specifically targeted for care under European models. In England, the national healthcare system has seen some problems, but for the most part, the nationalized nature of the system makes sure that just about anyone that needs treatment can get that treatment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The issue at the heart of the healthcare debate is over the uninsured folks that have a hard time securing healthcare. In the United States, that number is steadily growing with each passing year. This is something that Michael Moore is quick to point out in his film and it is an essential part of the argument for a national healthcare system. According to a July article from the Associated Press, â€Å"Just this past week, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated there are about 43.6 million uninsured people in the country† (AP). Though that number does not represent a majority of the population, it is a significant portion of a civilized country that would have absolutely no way of getting healthcare in case of a medical emergency. Should cancer strike any of that contingent of Americans, they would have no way of coming up with the thousands of dollars for treatment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another important healthcare consideration that is taken into account in Michael Moore’s film is the disparity between the rich and the poor. This is what is really at the heart of the matter. Those with money can afford to purchase the insurance that will protect them, while those without money cannot afford insurance. Making it even worse is the fact that the jobs that give the benefit of included healthcare insurance are the jobs that actually pay people enough to afford insurance. Presidential candidate Barack Obama has taken a stance on the issue and he has clearly defined the need for more healthcare for the poor in the United States. A January Washington Post article sheds light on Obama’s opinion on the matter. In that article, Nedra Pickler writes, â€Å"He (Obama) said its wrong that 46 million in this country are uninsured when the country spends more than any one else on health care. He said Americans pay $15 billion in taxes to help care for the uninsured† (Pickler). Obama has put a specific focus on the medical plight of poor women, who are often the biggest victims in the entire ordeal. Without a national healthcare system, the rising cost of women’s care in America makes it impossible for a large chunk of the country’s ladies to keep up.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For those that do not have a huge amount of understanding on women’s care and how involved it is, the situation is a difficult one to understand. While men can get away with not going to the doctor for a period of months or years, women have to have check-ups in order to stay healthy enough to have children. This must be a huge focus for American society, especially as fertility rates keep falling for women in the country. Doctors are becoming much more specialized in this day and age, so their services are costing more. Gynecologists are no different, so insurance companies are being asked to pay more for that service. Even more important than the standard checkup is the entire situation of pregnancy. Women need to see a doctor every two to three weeks during pregnancy to make sure that everything is alright in their body and for their baby. This need comes in addition to the standard medical procedures that women must undertake to make sure that they stay in good condition.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Women are among the most neglected when it comes to insurance in the United States. This correlation between gender and income is an important statistic to consider when forming opinions about the plight of the national healthcare system. Though the current system was certainly not written in a way that it would intentionally preclude women, the reality of the situation has almost made it look that way. Median income levels are lower for women in American than they are for men. It is much more difficult for women, be they white, black, Hispanic or any other race, to get a high paying job or one that offers full healthcare benefits. Though insurance companies might be precluding women from involvement, pregnancy has not been nearly as kind. There is no discrimination when it comes to that, as a poor woman is just as likely to get pregnant as a rich woman. Still, adequate care must be provided through the process of pregnancy and such care cannot be provided without the proper healthcare protection. The Christiane Northup book, Women’s Body, Women’s Wisdom, breaks down pregnancy in the following terms. â€Å"Pregnancy is a miraculous process and should be a time when a woman makes every effort to tune in to her body and baby with the support of her surroundings. For centuries, midwives helped mothers through the pregnancy and birthing processes, standing by them with medical and emotional aid† (Northup). This quotation clearly shows the need for assistance in a number of different areas for women during pregnancy. It is something that cannot be ignored for many women, as they seek to have the best pregnancy possible.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another thing to consider in all of this is the plight of single mothers in America. Recent sociological trends are indicating that more and more women are having children out of wedlock. Without a man present to help foot the bill for pregnancy costs, women without healthcare have an even more difficult time coming up with the money to pay for their own care. This is a trend that does not seem to be going anywhere anytime soon, so it is imperative that the overriding problems get fixed before things get worse. Moore attacks this in Sicko, as he feels that single mothers are some of the biggest victims of the current healthcare system.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to Moore, single mothers are not the only victims in this situation. Though the politically correct notion is not to speak about race in regards to healthcare, the reality of the situation is that minority women are being left out at an alarming rate. An Amanda Gardner report in HealthDay speaks to the overall lackluster support that women have from the current healthcare system. Gardner writes, â€Å"No state met the goal for access to health insurance. Nationwide, 18 percent of women aged 18 to 64 were uninsured. In 2007, five states decreased Medicaid eligibility levels for working parents, making it more difficult for low-income people to get insurance† (Gardner). This trend has had a profound impact on minority mothers, who statistics show are working hard to provide for their children and also take care of themselves medically.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In his movie Sicko, Michael Moore does not shy away from the topic of women and how they are affected by the current healthcare system. In fact, Moore makes it a point to break down how they are often the most mistreated of any of the demographic areas. A Kyle Smith article in the New York Post makes a large effort to disparage the work of Michael Moore, but it does lend light on one example from Moore’s film where the focus is clearly placed upon mistreated women. In the article, Kyle Smith writes, â€Å"Perhaps the most absurd example is that of the woman who says that after she received benefits, the check was stopped because she had previously suffered an undisclosed yeast infection† (Smith). If the story from the woman in the film is true, then the problems within the system are so apparent and so flawed that securing healthcare is almost a hopeless venture for many women within the United States. Moore has harsh criticism for the current system in its exploitation of women financially. Because the current system is one that rewards doctors and insurance companies on the amount of work they can do, it directly impacts women. As mentioned previously, women have a greater reason to head to the doctor for a plethora of events. Under the current system, women are even discouraged from heading to the doctor in order to get the care that they so desperately need. Instead of going to the doctor to get care for themselves and their unborn children, women are being asked to limit their visits in an effort to save money. This is unfair and unsafe, according to Moore. His proposed implementation of a national healthcare system would take care of this issue, as it would shift the burden to all of the taxpayers and would insure that distribution of healthcare is on a need basis. That means that women would not feel pressured and they could head to the doctor’s office freely and without worry.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Michael Moore is not shy about offering up solutions for a better system. In his film, he specifically refers to the national healthcare systems used by much of Europe and Canada. He proposes that if America were to go to a taxpayer funded national healthcare system, like the one proposed by Obama, things would get much easier for women specifically. They would not only have unlimited care at their immediate disposal, but women would also have top notch care that is necessary. With fertility levels dropping and that causing problems to other national systems like Social Security, it is essential that the federal government takes action to help women protect themselves and their ability to have children. According to Moore, a federal system in which socialized medicine is offered will be the best scenario for women in the United States.   Works Cited Smith, Kyle. 19 June 2007. New York Post. Botched Operation: Crazy Moore Offers Wrong Prescription. Gardner, Amanda. 17 October 2007. HealthDay. U.S. Women’s Health Care Still Falls Short: Report. Associated Press. 2 July 2007. Little Defense for U.S. Health Care of ‘Sicko’. Nedra, Pickler. The Associated Press. 25 January 2007. Obama Calls for Universal Health Care.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Analysis of Google :: Internet Search Engines Technology Essays

Analysis of Google Google is a play on the word googol, which was coined by Milton Sirotta, nephew of American mathematician Edward Kasner, and was popularized in the book, "Mathematics and the Imagination" by Kasner and James Newman. It refers to the number represented by the numeral 1 followed by 100 zeros. Google's use of the term reflects the company's mission to organize the immense, seemingly infinite amount of information available on the web. Back before Google? Aye, there's the Rub. According to Google lore, company founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin were not terribly fond of each other when they first met as Stanford University graduate students in computer science in 1995. Larry was a 24-year-old University of Michigan alumnus on a weekend visit; Sergey, 23, was among a group of students assigned to show him around. They argued about every topic they discussed. Their strong opinions and divergent viewpoints would eventually find common ground in a unique approach to solving one of computing's biggest challenges: retrieving relevant information from a massive set of data. By January of 1996, Larry and Sergey had begun collaboration on a search engine called BackRub, named for its unique ability to analyze the "back links" pointing to a given website. Larry, who had always enjoyed tinkering with machinery and had gained some notoriety for building a working printer out of Legoâ„ ¢, took on the task of creating a new kind of server environment that used low-end PCs instead of big expensive machines. Afflicted by the perennial shortage of cash common to graduate students everywhere, the pair took to haunting the department's loading docks in hopes of tracking down newly arrived computers that they could borrow for their network. A year later, their unique approach to link analysis was earning BackRub a growing reputation among those who had seen it. Buzz about the new search technology began to build as word spread around campus. The search for a buyer Larry and Sergey continued working to perfect their technology through the first half of 1998. Following a path that would become a key tenet of the Google way, they bought a terabyte of disks at bargain prices and built their own computer housings in Larry's dorm room, which became Google's first data center. Meanwhile Sergey set up a business office, and the two began calling on potential partners who might want to license a search technology better than any then available.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Disadvantages of television Essay

TV viewing takes away the time that your child needs to develop important skills like language, creativity, motor, and social skills. These skills are developed in the kids’ first two years (a critical time for brain development) through play, exploration, and conversation. A kid’s language skills, for example, do not improve by passively listening to the TV. It is developed by interacting with people, when talking and listening is used in the context of real life. TV viewing numbs your kid’s mind as it prevents your child from exercising initiative, being intellectually challenged, thinking analytically, and using his imagination. TV viewing takes away time from reading and improving reading skills through practice. Kids who watch a lot of TV have trouble paying attention to teachers because they are accustomed to the fast-paced visual stimulation on TV. Kids who watch TV more than they talk to their family have a difficult time adjusting from being visual learners to aural learners (learning by listening). They also have shorter attention spans. School kids who watch too much TV also tend to work less on their homework. When doing homework with TV on the background, kids tend to retain less skill and information. When they lose sleep because of TV, they become less alert during the day, and this results in poor school performance. TV exposes your kid to negative influences, and promotes negative behavior. TV shows and commercials usually show violence, alcohol, drug use and sex in a positive light. The mind of your kid is like clay. It forms early impressions on what it sees, and these early impressions determine how he sees the world and affect his grown-up behavior. For instance, children who are more exposed to media violence behave more aggressively as kids and when they are older. Kids who watch too much TV are usually overweight, according to the American Medical Association. Kids often snack on junk food while watching TV. They are also influenced by commercials to consume unhealthy food. Also, they are not running, jumping, or doing activities that burn calories and increase metabolism. Obese kids, unless they change their habits, tend to  be obese when they become adults. TV watching also affects a child’s health and athletic ability. The more television a child watches, even in the first years of life, the more likely he is to be obese and less muscularly fit, according to a study by the University of Montreal. Even though your kid does not aspire to be a football star, his athletic abilities are important not only for physical health, but predicting how physically active he will be as an adult. Television further restricts an individual indulging in alternative activities such as reading, sports, religion, and active hobbies. Televisions depiction of horror, crime and violence further anaesthetises an individual from the real life problem. As television competes with other activities and experiences in a child’s life, parents role in providing alternatives are crucial. Moreover their own attitudes and beliefs both about television programmes and about life in general are important determinants of children’s response to television. Television may be a socialising force but it interacts in complex ways with all of the other forces in a child’s life to determine the patterns of socialisation for that child.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Brave New World Double Entry Journals Essay

It was because about 3 centuries ago all classes of people were conditioned to like nature and transportation but that meant on the weekend they were unproductive so now they are conditioned to like transportation and country sports, which means they still consume transportation. | Pg. 30 â€Å"Human beings used to be. † he hesitated; the blood rushed to his cheeks. â€Å"Well, they used to be viviparous. †| What does viviparous mean? The context of it in the book seems to be like a bad word would be today to say. After this line it says â€Å"Born†. Viviparous: (of an animal) Bringing forth live young that have developed inside the body of the parent. (Dictionary. com) I was right it meant to have kids, BNW people are so used to babies being hatched and don’t know what it’s like for someone to give birth. | Pg. 32 â€Å"Moral education, which ought never, in any circumstances, to be rational. †| The D. H. C. expresses the idea that moral education is accepted in the society. However, those morals are determined by ‘The World Controllers’. Reasoning, fate, or God do not play a role in moral education. Nothing is to ever be based on proper reasoning and especially emotion. | Pg. 34. â€Å"Till at last the child’s mind is these suggestions, and the sum of the suggestions is the child’s mind. And not the child’s mind only. The adult’s mind too all his life long. The mind that judges and desires and decides- made up of these suggestions. But all these suggestions are our suggestions! † The Director almost shouted in his triumph. â€Å"Suggestions from the State. †| Everything the people think or want to do is from the state. People can’t/aren’t allowed to think for their self’s. They are told what they do and don’t like. The Director seems very proud about how the state can decide on what the kids are to know/learn. If you think about it closely this is almost done in today’s society. Schools are all regulated per region in the world and things are chosen on what kids should learn, and what is morally right/wrong. | Pg. 35 â€Å"Nowadays the Controllers won’t approve of any new game unless it can be shown that it requires at least as much apparatus as the most complicated of existing games. †| Why would the controllers not allow a game that is simpler than any current games? All games must be more complex in how it works than current ones to be approved. Is this done to make people who invent things to think harder too make it more complex that in turn, the people are thinking harder and able to hopefully produce better things for the society? | Pg. 35 â€Å"Two children, a little boy of about seven and a little girl who might have been a year older, were playing, very gravely and with all the focused attention of scientists intent on a labor of discovery, a rudimentary sexual game. â€Å"Charming, charming! † the D. H. C. repeated sentimentally. | Is it just me or is it weird that the society pushes promiscuously on kids age 7 and 8. Also the director seems to enjoy watching the two kids erotic behavior. | Pg. 35 â€Å"This little boy seems rather reluctant to join in the ordinary erotic play. †¦.. â€Å"And so,† she went on, turning back to the Director, â€Å"I’m taking him in to see the Assistant Superintendent of Psychol ogy. Just to see if anything’s at all abnormal. †| Maybe there isn’t anything wrong with the boy, BNW society is basically forcing little kids to explore/have sex with each other. What can the superintendent of psychology tell you other than that the kid doesn’t ant too have sex. It is also creepy that they all look the exact same. | Pg. 39 â€Å"Our Ford’s: History is bunk. History,† he repeated slowly, â€Å"is bunk. †Ã¢â‚¬  | I know in real life Henry Ford said something along those lines; â€Å"†History is more or less bunk. It’s tradition. We don’t want tradition. We want to live in the present, and the only history that is worth a tinker’s damn is the history that we make today. † (Chicago Tribune, 1916). | Pg. 41 â€Å"I’ve been feeling rather out of sorts lately,† Fanny explained. â€Å"Dr. Wells advised me to have a Pregnancy Substitute. â€Å"But, my dear, you’re only nineteen. The first Pregnancy Substitute isn’t compulsory till twenty-one. †| Since no one in the society has children it seems as though once each female turns 21 they have a pregnancy substitute to mimic pregnancy. This is maybe done so no one has an odd urge to have a baby. | Pg. 42 â€Å"Again? † Fanny’s kind, rather moon-like face took on an incongruous expression of pained and disapproving astonishment. â€Å"Do you mean to tell me you’re still going out with Henry Foster? †| In the society it seems like a very big disapproval of people especially to date/marry. People are only supposed to go out together one night, have sex, and be done with each other that is why Fanny is questioning Lenina. | Pg. 45 â€Å"After all, every one belongs to every one else. †| This keeps coming up throughout the book that after all everyone (belongs/works) to/for everyone else. The society here shows that they believe everyone is equal. Why would they make differ class groups for the society? | Pg. 47 â€Å"They say somebody made a mistake when he was still in the bottle-thought he was a Gamma and put alcohol into his blood-surrogate. That’s why he’s so stunted. | So in the BNW society to stunt the growth and brainpower of select groups they put alcohol into the blood that is transferred over the embryo to stunt the growth. In today’s time research has been shown that if you drink alcohol when pregnant a baby can be born with birth defects or have a mentally disorder. | Pg. 48 â€Å"The Nine Years’ War began in A. F. 141. à ¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. â€Å"The Nine Years’ War, the great Economic Collapse. There was a choice between world Control and destruction. Between stability and . †| It can be inferred that the conflict broke out in Europe, affected most of the planet, and caused massive physical damage. It is repeatedly stated that chemical and biological weapons were used during the war, particularly in mass air-raids against cities. Following the war, the global economy collapsed and created an unprecedented worldwide economic crisis. The new world leaders tried to forcibly impose their new ideologies on Earth’s populations. This met with widespread resistance, including large-scale riots. Realizing that they could not force people to adopt the new lifestyle, the World Controllers instead united the planet into the One World State and began a peaceful campaign of change. This campaign included the closing of museums, the suppression of almost all literature published before 2058, and the destruction of the few historical world monuments that had survived the war. | Pg. 51 â€Å"Ending is better than mending† | There are many meanings to this statement. One could be the clear one that when you have an old pair of clothes to throw it out instead of trying to fix it. This helps the BNW economy by people always spending money to buy new clothes. A second point I took from this quote was with the ‘Nine Years War’ that it was better to end and restart how the world worked than trying to reorganize the planet and trying to pick up from where we were before the war. | Pg. 51 â€Å"The introduction of Our Ford’s first T-Model . †| At first I thought their god/creator was some guy named Ford but now I’m peaty sure Huxley implies that it is Henry Ford. I stated this because Ford’s first model of car he made was called the T-Model. (Wikipedia) | Pg. 64 â€Å"It’s not enough for the phrases to be good; what you make with them ought to be good too. | He is telling him that it doesn’t matter if the phrases are good it’s how you make them good. He is implying the idea of using your mind and not what is given to you. Future Rebel? | Pg. 67 â€Å"Fine to think we can go on being socially useful even after we’re dead. Making plants grow. †| Even after your dead th e society still uses you for it’s personal gain they take your body and it’s turned into fertilizer for crops to grow!!! | Pg. 75 â€Å"Orgy-porgy, Ford and fun,Kiss the girls and make them One. Boys at one with girls at peace;Orgy-porgy gives release. †| This is talking about and orgy. The last stanza of â€Å"orgy-porgy gives release† as the violent passion surrogate, the surrogate pregnancy and the soma, is a sign that the World State has not been able to completely annihilate from human nature. There is still some need for liberation, a need to experience strong emotions that have not been completely wiped out through conditioning. Solidarity Service is one of many mechanisms used to channel state of the excitement, so that they present no threat to state power. | Pg. 77 â€Å"Not more than half a dozen people in the whole Centre had ever been inside a Savage Reservation. As an Alpha-Plus psychologist, Bernard was one of the few men she knew entitled to a permit. For Lenina, the opportunity was unique. †| What is a savage reservation? Is it an area where they keep a group of normal people like you and me in today’s time? In case something goes wrong or for emergencies they can have back up DNA. | Pg. 78 â€Å"â€Å"In a crowd,† he grumbled. â€Å"As usual. † He remained obstinately gloomy the whole afternoon; wouldn’t talk to Lenina’s friends (of whom they met dozens in the ice-cream soma bar between the wrestling bouts)†| It seems like people in BNW like too be in crowds and together. But Bernard seems like the only person who doesn’t like to be with groups of people. Is this because of something going wrong when he was in a test tube? | Pg. 84 â€Å"Don’t imagine,† he said, â€Å"that I’d had any indecorous relation with the girl. Nothing emotional, nothing long-drawn. †| The director is thinking that Bernard is thinking the director had more than a sexual relationship with the women he brought to the reserve, which is against BNW rules in the society because after all everyone belongs to everyone. Pg. 88 â€Å"Five hundred and sixty thousand square kilometers, divided into four distinct Sub-Reservations, each surrounded by a high-tension wire fence. †| Why would the reservations have to be subdivided and need for instant death electric fences? Maybe each reserve has a different race and they want each race to be separate and to protect their own traditions and culture. It is maybe also for science to not be able to get i n to the people in the reserves. |

Friday, November 8, 2019

Hypnosis essays

Hypnosis essays First, lets define hypnosis: an artificially induced altered state of consciousness, characterized by heightened suggestibility and receptivity to direction (Websters, 2000). The best way to describe hypnosis is as a state of intense relaxation and concentration, in which the mind becomes remote and detached from everyday cares and concerns. In this relaxed state the subconscious part of the mind is best able to respond creatively to suggestion and imagery. It can focus on the things you wish to change and on the ways you can best do so, free from analytical or anxious thoughts (Lee, 4). You are, however, not asleep or unconscious. You are in an altered state of consciousness in which you let things happen through your subconscious mind rather than trying to make them happen with your conscious mind. Because you are deeply relaxed, the suggestions given to you by the hypnotist will be acted upon more easily by the subconscious (Lee, 9). Posthypnotic suggestions are those that will be carried out by you when you come out of the hypnotic state. First, it is important to understand how your mind works. We have three separate and distinct parts of our mind. These three parts are: the conscious mind, the subconscious mind, and the unconscious mind. Each having different responsibilities, with very little communication among each other. Imagining that the parts of our mind are at different levels- first, we have a conscious mind. Our conscious mind is actively working right now. Below our conscious level of awareness, is where we will find our subconscious mind (Lee, 12) . Pleasure Principle and the Reality Principle (II) The pleasure principle and the reality principle are the desire for immediate gratification vs. the deferral of that gratification. Quite simply, the pleasure principle drives one to seek pleasure and to avoid pain. However, as one grows up, one begins to learn the need sometimes to endure pain and to defer gra...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Amazon Value Proposition Essays

Amazon Value Proposition Essays Amazon Value Proposition Essay Amazon Value Proposition Essay Its value proposition was mainly the ease of election and convenience to the book lovers and they translated the same value in the other segments after diversifying. Its revenue model is Sales revenue model as it derives its revenue from selling of goods, information and services. It also derives a majority of its sales from third party sellers who sell product on Amazon. Process followed and issues faced while selecting the company: Before starting with which company to pick for, tried to understand about the history of the e-commerce as discussed in detail in class. Then, searched to find some of the best known e-commerce companies. There were issues like there is too much information on the internet and there is not one particular company which one can find complete to understand at this junction of the course. Have taken this particular company because of its repeated reference in all the books and lectures. Also, another reason for picking up this company is that Amazon does not only act in the ICC domain but also EBB. Along with that it was a first mover in its market place so it will be interesting to know how they managed it. My objective will be to understand its current value proposition and revenue model. Talking about revenue model, noticed one thing that although it is primarily sales revenue model but it also allows companies to advertise their products by paying to be listed as featured products. So, is it purely a sales model or has an essence of advertising model also? This question will try to understand in detail. One other objective which I would like to cover in this course is that in year 201 3, it entered Indian e-commerce market as Amazon. In. The difference in he Indian scenario is that due to regulatory hurdles, it can not own any of the merchandise it sells. So, it primarily acts as a sales channel. Therefore, it will be interesting to study how they will tweak their business model to stay competitive against local and established players like Flippant, Snappers etc.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Introduction To Leviticus Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Introduction To Leviticus - Research Paper Example This has been the subject of controversy over years. To the proponents of documentary hypothesis, the book of Leviticus, which is also one of the Pentateuch books was not written by one person, Moses, but instead was a product of various others. Of course, there exists archeological and historical fabrications and evidence which explicitly supports this line of thought. While the debate about documentary evidence continues, there is also compelling evidence to believe the former. It is the intent of this paper to explore arguments against documentary evidence and to show Moses’ authenticity and single handedness in drafting Leviticus. The Hebrew derives the title of Leviticus from the initial word in it Wayyiqra’, which when translated implies â€Å"and He [the Lord] called† (1:1). The use of the conjunction â€Å"and† describes that Leviticus is a continuation of the previous chapter, Exodus, the flow of thought in this case is continuous and there is no break.1 At the same time, the English title of the book is derived from the word â€Å"Vulgate† which is a Latin version, which referred to this book as Liber Leviticus. This Latin title has been suggested as having the same meaning as Leuitikon, which implies â€Å"of relation to the Levites.† From the above analysis, it therefore seems quite correct that the title used in this book is appropriate, since the book has Mosaic Covenant that again relates to the Levites, or to be precise to the Israelites, delivered to them by Moses. The overriding theme contained in the book of Leviticus is worship. Moses later re-introduced the theme of worship in the later chapters of the bible in Exodus, but this theme was only concretized in Leviticus. The book illustrates how sinful redeemed Israelites could enjoy a new renewed spiritual relationship with their creator. It also shows how the Israelites could maintain this Holy relationship with God through worship. One of the main r evelations that are given in Leviticus is the nature of sin. From the analysis of other chapters, it can be seen that God under estimated man’s ability to commit sin. God first initiated this in Genesis and Exodus, and thus used Leviticus to clarify this sinful nature of man. Additionally, God exposes the theme of atonement in Leviticus. Atonement can be understood as the price of man’s sin. God in Leviticus removed the sins of Israelites until a final sacrifice was paid for sins. God continuously accepted the price of sin through sacrifice until a final atonement was made through Jesus Christ. Through atonement then man could be allowed to enter into a Covenant with God. For this situation, three things had to be given to justify man’s sinful nature. This book has been written by Moses because it contains God revelations to Moses in which he recorded in Leviticus after he renewed the Covenant with Israel (Exod. 34:1-28). This book is solely unique as it contain s God’s instructions to Moses. Andrew A. Bonar in his Commentary on Leviticus thus argues, â€Å"There is no book in the whole compass of that inspired Volume which the Holy Spirit has given us, that contains more of the very words of God than Leviticus. It is God that is the direct speaker in almost all the pages; His gracious words are recorded in the most original manner that they were uttered.†2 As seen in other similar literary analysis, Leviticus

Friday, November 1, 2019

European monetary policy and stock market Essay

European monetary policy and stock market - Essay Example The effect of global market and the integration of the financial markets shows the effect on the stock market and economy due to the changes in monetary policies have profound impacts with respect to defining the future of economics. It is evident that local stock markets would feel the effects of change in the monetary policies; however, the level of impact would be different in other regions - especially within different economic sectors that might not have same level of effect (Nuno & Claudio, 2002). Thus analysts and economists around the world believe that it is not only monetary policy and foreign policy that help to define market action but also the foreign economic policy that impacts the stock price and volatility of the stock market. From such an understanding, it must also be noted that it is the central bank that designs the monetary policy for any region in order to control the macro-economic factors and devise a wholistic strategy for the economy. It has been the volatility of the stock market that has increased the focus towards the role of central banks in helping to prevent or reduce the disruptive effects of the financial shocks on the economy (Bernanke, 1999). It is also required to be understood that role of stock prices should be defined and the monetary policy should take into account the stock prices; due to the fact that they whether are related or not to the fundamentals they can have a destabilizing effect on the economy. Many analysts represent he view that in order to ensure the long term success of the monetary policy price stability must be ensured; thus integrating role of stock market in to the monetary policy (Lawrence, et al., 2010). This integration would allow the central bank to preven t the volatility of the stock market and ensure economic stability. This has especially been true since the

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Are or should rights be based on nationality The Module is [ Essay

Are or should rights be based on nationality The Module is [ Citizenship in Theory and Practice] politics - Essay Example It is for this reason that arbiters of rights are always under scrutiny and lot of discussion goes on regarding the role and task of rights arbitrator for informing people regarding their rights. The question of rights has always challenged political philosopher and thinkers. The question has also tested the wits of moral thinkers as it is one of the fundamental issues of morality. Since, philosophy started in ancient Greece therefore early thought had Greek city state or polis in mind and for this reason the application of rights focused on the relationship of individual and polis. As such, the idea of rights is mainly based on the responsibilities of the individual citizen to the wider polis (Delanty, 2000). Individual submitted before the authority of polis for the protection of his life and limb. The concept of rights in the ancient world was related with area and territory. The concept of citizenship was firmly based on birth. Therefore, the development and application of rights has traditionally been firmly linked with a concept of territorial integrity (Lister & Pia, 2008). Modern concept of Western nationalism has firmly established the link between rights and territorial integrity, which was originally formed in ancient Greece and practiced in Roman Empire. ... Nationality and the nation state have always been linked; as a result, a similar link has been formed between the concept of rights and the foundation of nationality (Held, 1995). This strong link of rights and nationality continued on for a long period of time but development in science and technology along with better communication has brought significant changes in the outlook and approach of thinkers. Many factors are responsible for the changed attitude but three primary processes account for this attempt to revise the idea of rights. Firstly, migration has brought phenomenal changes in the concept of nationality. Secondly, the formation of regional political structures has meant that concepts of regional citizenship have taken firm ground. Numerous examples of regional bodies can be found; however, possibly the most significant at the present time is the European Union (Faist, 2007). Finally with advent of Information Technology the concept of globalisation has become a byword. The commencement of globalisation and the necessary political responses that have been taken have led many to question whether basing rights on nationality is applicable in an unified and mutually dependent world (Held, 1995). This concept of globalisation has questioned the link of rights and territory. Above all, as globalisation has increasingly served to de-link individuals and societies from the national setting, the idea that rights can be founded on the basis of national territory has been greatly criticised (Held, 1995). Considering the above assessment, the purpose of this work is to assess and examine whether, or should the application of rights be based on

Monday, October 28, 2019

Historical and political relation of anthropology with human rights Essay Example for Free

Historical and political relation of anthropology with human rights Essay From the onset, it is necessary to define anthropology as the social science that is involved with studying the inherent relationship patterns and origins of human beings. As a juxtaposition, the concept of human rights refers to the intrinsic freedoms and rights to which all and sundry (human beings) are entitled, if only by virtue of belonging to the human race, and these are broadly categorized into two main classifications, including the socio-cultural and economic rights, which pertain to the rights to education, food, work and participate in culture. The other distinct grouping of rights and freedoms are those of civil and political nature, encompassing the ideology of people being equal before the law, the right to liberty and life, and also, the freedom to freely express oneself, provided that this does not interfere with that of other people. It is noteworthy that the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights – a non-binding declaration by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 reiterates the equality of all humans as relates to their rights and dignity, further acknowledging that each individual was equipped with the vital tools of a rational conscience and logical reasoning, and thus, all subsequent inter-personal relationships ought to reflect a communal spirit of brotherly co-existence. This cognition is widely viewed as being the framework for justice, peace and freedom in the globe today (Goodale, 2004:18-29). From a historical perspective, the anthropologist is more concerned with deciphering the linkage between the afore-mentioned rights and the prevailing localized cultures, from whence an understanding of the basic outline of social justice against a backdrop of cultural relativism is investigated. The general concession is that indeed, deliberation into the historical aspects of anthropology reveals a contribution to both the practical and theoretical facets of human rights workings. Select case studies closely related to this postulation include the current crisis in the Middle East, pitting the Israelis against the inhabitants of the Gaza strip, the Rwandan genocide (Bowman, 2000:31-49) and the topical issue of gay rights in Southern Africa. The former predicament entails Israel devastating, over the recent past, a population of some 1. million inhabitants in Gaza, with their arms tied behind their backs, owing to the fact that there is no active army in Gaza. Statistics reveal that close to 1300 Palestinian casualties are on record, as opposed to a measly 13 Israelis in the raging conflict, largely regarded as a modern day case of ‘ethnic cleansing’. Since the year 2006, Israel placed a blockade into the Gaza region, thus inhibiting the delivery of necessities such as medicine, food and fuel. Previous attempts to foster harmony and well-being in the region, with cease-fires being disrespected severally, have led up to the present situation in which the stakeholders in the conflict, chief amongst which is the Hamas, the Islamic Palestinian socio-political faction that has been in control of the Gaza strip, and Israel itself, have agreed to permanently seek a lasting solution to avoid more bloodshed. The possible recommendations to aid in arriving at a peaceful co-existence is scenario where Israel takes the front row in ensuring a sense of hope to the Palestinians, via the action of taking the political risk and dismantling the illegal West Bank Settlements. On their part, Palestinians should institute measures to ensure they elect purposive leaders into power, if only to militate against the eventuality of history repeating itself iteratively. Hamas should in turn cease firing missiles into Israel, which only serve to wound and kill majority of the innocent civilians, and the large scale smuggling of arms, so as to avoid the likelihood of the situation degenerating into another â€Å"United States versus Al Qaeda† affair. Also, the other stakeholders in the conflict, namely Jordan and Egypt, should seal all loopholes that enable the military exploits of the Hamas to fall through. This being said, the International community should actively ensure they do not turn a deaf ear to the conflict, to be spearheaded by the United Nations and the European Union. The latter, in detail, involved South Africa holding its second, fully democratic elections in the year 1999, which were characterized by the recognition of a wide array of groups and previously neglected factions of the population, such as the gay and lesbian community. Earlier on, the country made history by pioneering non-discrimination on the basis of an individual’s sexual orientation, with gay and lesbian activists championing their cause by widely challenging the very constitutionality of laws that infringed on their freedoms, organizing workshops to educate voters on their rights, plus lobbying for the drafting and resultant implementation of rules and legislations guaranteeing equity in the rights of all citizens (Goodale, 2004:43-54). They also went a step further and created working relationships with non-governmental organizations like the Human Rights Commission and the Commission on Gender Equality, in addition to forming outreach programmes for the members of the gay and lesbian community, especially those that lived in townships. Of particular note is the fact that sodomy has been decriminalized before the South African courts, thus recording another victory in the war for adequate recognition of this community. Of significance is the assertion that, these developments were achieved even with the realization that the South African populace was still divided along ethnic and racial boundaries (Riches, 1986:16-29), and more importantly, within the indigenous cultural groupings in the country, homosexuality is deemed non-existent, or on the best case scenario, a foreign acquisition. Thus, in a nutshell, this case study can be assessed from the view that it not only shapes social patterns, but also, it is instrumental in the democratization of regimes, as influenced by the civil society. Yet another occurrence was witnessed in an iconic court case in Japan (2008), involving the challenging of the historical definition of whom the concept of â€Å"human rights† is meant to apply. The immediate bone of contention was that the court of the day had proceeded to expand the rights of the children of Japanese fathers and non-Japanese mothers to claim Japanese citizenship, and thus by extension, such definition by the justices in the case served to only ensure the protection of the fundamental human rights of Japanese citizens, excluding those of other non-citizens. In this way, this can be said to expressly alienate those people who did not have papers certifying their Japanese citizenship. However, this ought not to be the case, as the rights in question should be guaranteed to every human being, as the very name suggests. In a publication by one Professor Jones regarding this case, he posits that there is a sorry state of affairs in Japan, citing that the tendency of the Sovereign state to mediate the citizens’ claims against each other should be sharply contrasted against the Anglo-American system, which is characterized by human rights being the limiting factor of the state’s power over individuals. In this way, the case is illustrative of how culture and history can affect and/or influence human rights in society (Kurtz, 2001: 43-52). Whilst still appreciating the historical contribution of anthropology to human rights, it is worthwhile to take mention of the concept of hegemony, defined as the utter domination of a state over its allies, and how this has over time influenced historical changes, especially on the cultural frontier. As a focal point, hegemony facilitates the comprehension of power within the confines of routine daily activities, as may be underpinned by cultural (customary) practices (Asad, 1991:13-27). On a more positive note, it is fit to state that the anthropological theory has over the years succeeded to come up with a contested, unbounded and widely flexible supposition of the term, which consequently goes a long way in uncovering the cultural understandings and how these in turn shape power relations, naturalizing domination and acting to suppress different manifestations of resistance in the society (Gledhill, 2000:29-44). Again, drawing from the South African example, although in a different context, it can be established that, quite ironically, the evangelical work of missionaries can be termed as being part of hegemony, although it heightened societal consciousness, going on to spark a form of resistance that gave rise to the awareness of the black community, fuelling the fight against apartheid. Of particular contention is the debate whether, as an interpretive issue, resistance in society should require consciousness and be collective in nature, or whether on the other hand, an end of attaining justice should be envisioned from the onset. Also, it is disputable whether the concept at hand should be extended to incorporate such actions as may be influenced by a sense of non-cooperation or discontent. In the recent past, there has been great agitation in the anthropological circles, wherein the concept of culture has been scrutinized in detail. Earlier anthropologists focused chiefly on societies that were virtually unaffected by factors such as colonial influences, for example, but there’s light at the end of the tunnel since, today, greater emphasis is being laid on flexibility of the frame of thought of culture, as afore-mentioned, now not only being affiliated to habits and daily practices of a people, but also, being engrained in the values they abide to and the ideas subscribed to. In other instances, there have been historical documentations of indigenous communities confronting resistance from the perspective of laying claim to various resources, more so when these individuals are challenged to prove an authentic affiliation to the culture under consideration (Rejali, 1994:49-60); disqualification usually results from the assertion that certain social groups have already undergone cultural changes. In a strange twist, it can be seen that the concept of ‘culture’, as formulated by twentieth century anthropologists in a bid to champion the rights of small-scale communities in the wake of colonialism and other civilizing projects, has in present times been apposite to differing political ends of resisting reform in certain sectors and turning a deaf ear to the claims of indigenous people’s claims to reparation (compensation). On a transitional note, the political inclination of anthropology to human rights can be deduced by critical analysis of the two disciplines (Cohen, 1978:34-57). Such relationship necessitates a vivid conception of the said human rights within a template of anthropologically conceived ideas or principles. A brief intermission here is the appreciation that, as an academic discipline, anthropology seeks to study the various forms and bases of human unity and relative diversity, while the other side of this coin practically applies the acquired knowledge to actively solve problems that may plague the human race (Gledhill, 2000:59-83). This being the situation, politically-oriented anthropologists should concern themselves with instances where the denial of certain rights is pegged on the differences in one human aspect or the other. The validity of using ‘human difference’ as an indicator of human rights is that it incorporates the very specificity of what we as humans be it collectively or from an individual stance – have evolved to be, both culturally and socially. It is worth noting that the term ‘difference’, as applied in this context, refers to the linguistic, socio-cultural and/or biological characteristics of people, relative to the initial human capacities that facilitated their production in the first place. On the flipside, as may relate to human rights, these ‘differences’ may principally represent the products of the realization of social relations, personal identities and cultural forms (Goodale, 2004:98-110). The general implication of the above argumentation is that specific human rights may be advocated for by calling upon the trans-cultural, but positive, right to difference. This analogy can be stretched further still by acknowledging the unwritten law that anthropologists who study and research instances of societal injustices and assorted cases of human rights abuses do, in the actual sense, bear an ethical obligation to find lasting solutions to these predicaments. In particular, those working with marginal and/or indigenous communities shoulder the responsibility of supporting these groups by all means available, including advocacy as mentioned above (Fried, 1967:61-69).