Monday, May 25, 2020

Midterm 3 History Essay - 8024 Words

There were 3 questions that I did not have the answer to. I’ve highlighted them in yellow. I apologize for the formatting, but the copy and paste job from Microsoft Word kinda screwed up. Feel free to format to your hearts content. Cheers! CC 302/CTI 310: Midterm Exam Short Answer Questions  · What was the position of the tribunes on the escalating conflict between Caesar, Pompey and the senate? What was Cicero’s position? o The tribunes were advocating for compromise with Caesar by offering him legal protection and military power. o Cicero was supporting the senate and Pompey and was in Rome stirring up trouble for the first Triumvirate by speaking out of ending Caesar’s Gallic command to prosecute him for his injustices†¦show more content†¦Caesar establishes Cleopatra as Queen of Egypt in place of her brother. He also has a bastard son with her, Ptolemy Caesar.  · Why (and where) did Cato the Younger kill himself? What is his postmortem reputation? o Cato the Younger went to Utica to kill himself. He committed suicide in protest of living underneath a tyrant (better dead than alive under a tyrant). o He was remembered as a hero of the Republic.  · At which battle did Caesar famously say: Veni, Vidi, Vici? o Caesar said â€Å"Veni, Vidi, Vici† after the Battle at Zela.  · Who did Caesar fight at the battle of Munda? What happened? Who survived? o Caesar fought the remaining sons of Pompey and the Pompeiian supporters at the Battle of Munda. o It was a bloodbath and a victory for Caesar. o Only Sextus Pompey, one of Pompey’s sons, survived.  · Against what enemy was Caesar planning a campaign after his return to Rome in 45 BC? o Caesar was planning a campaign against the Parthians after his return to Rome in 45 BC to obtain the standards lost by Crassus.  · Why did Caesar reform the calendar? Impact of this reform? o Caesar reformed the calendar because the Roman year and Solar year were three months apart and had poorly represented the seasons (Snow in July and hot in December). o This reform accurately depicted the relevant seasons.  · What was Caesar’sShow MoreRelatedEssay about Acct-212 Midterm Study Guide1080 Words   |  5 PagesACCT212 - Financial Accounting Midterm Exam Study Guide YOU MAY WANT TO PRINT THIS GUIDE. 1. The Midterm Exam is open book, open notes. The maximum time you can spend in the exam is 3 hours, 30 minutes. If you have not clicked the Submit For Grade button by then, you will be automatically exited from the exam. In the Midterm Exam environment, the Windows clipboard is disabled, so you will not be able to copy exam questions or answers to or from other applications. 2. You should click the SaveRead MoreThe Period Of Greek Art866 Words   |  4 PagesMidterm Throughout the times in Greek art, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods have changed overtime from the sculptures in the form, style, and symmetry. The Archaic period lasted from 700 to 500 BCE and the sculptures haven’t yet mastered in sculpting showing realism. Their style of sculpting was similar to the Egyptians in the way that they made the bodies of the sculptures rigid with both arms on their sides and with a foot stepped forward (Greek Archaic Art). By the end of the ArchaicRead MoreYolo1583 Words   |  7 Pages____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Course Title Course Code Pre- requisite Credits : : : : World Literature Lit 02 Lit 01 3 Units Vision-Mission Statement : Instructor : Email : Office : Consultation Hours: MWF Venue : Consultation Rm. I. Course Description: Socorro D. De Jesus, Ph.D. Associate Professor 1 General Education Faculty Rm, 2 ndRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of The Software Life Cycle Model914 Words   |  4 PagesC330 Midterm Tyler Morrison Indiana University Northwest Abstract This midterm answers the questions and problems as follows: 1. Discuss the software life cycle model. Your book defines several so you can use the suggestions to identify which one you will research further. Research and choose another life cycle model. What is it? Its advantages/disadvantages. What environment is it used in. 2. Research and discuss the agile process. Advantages/disadvantages. When is this process most beneficialRead MoreA Report On The Classroom1335 Words   |  6 Pagessome more. I was also able to observe the second teacher that I was required to do. It was another history class during third period. So, I got to see them do a debate on Universal Health Care System. We also talked about where I had been parking and it is a good area, plus I am not taking another teacher’s parking space. So no drama on that. Though sometimes, it is hard to get out because I stay until 3:00pm and parents are coming to pick up the elementary students then so twice I have been blockedRead MorePhilosophy Syllabus1562 Words   |  7 PagesPhilippines BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Gov. Pablo Borbon Main Campus I Batangas City COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURE AND FINE ARTS GENERAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Second Semester, AY 2015-2016 COURSE SYLLABUS HUM 102 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY 3 Units Prerequisite: None UNIVERSITY VISION A University which shapes a global Filipino imbued with moral courage nurtured through values and excellent education. UNIVERSITY MISSION Batangas State University commits to develop productive citizensRead MoreAn Implementation Of A Community Intervention812 Words   |  4 Pagespolitical involvement in the black community. Through the election of the first African American president statistics have shown how important the youth vote, especially the black youth vote, has made a great impact and shaped politics. In the past 2014 Midterm election the turnout of the youth vote (age 18-29) was the lowest in the past 4 decades (The Center of Information and Research and Civic Learning and Engagement, 2015). This intervention will seek to engage in a discourse with the Black youth communityRead MoreSoc 300 Midterm Exam ( 40 40 Correct Answers )8394 Words   |  34 PagesSOC 300 Midterm Exam ( 40 40 Correct Answers ) Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser For More Courses and Exams use this form ( ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar ( ) Question 1 Why is it so difficult for the poorest societies to get to a foothold on theRead MoreThe Assessment Data Of The Miles College Self Study777 Words   |  4 Pagesfacilitators of learning for all students in P-12 schools (IR, p. 3). . The Professional Education Unit at Miles College prepares candidates, at the initial level, in ten Alabama State Department of Education approved program of study areas. The unit programs of study are: Biology Education, Chemistry/Chemistry Education, Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education, English Language Arts Education, General Science Education, History/Social Science Education, Mathematics/Mathematics Education, Music/MusicRead MoreThe Lewinsky Scandal, 19981491 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican economy benefited greatly and financial stability became more of a reality for many. However Clinton’s presidential legacy is also marked by his affair with Monica Lewinsky and his impeachment. He had become the second sitting president in history to be impeached by the House of Representatives. The Lewinsky affair shocked the public and the media along with the right wing were keen to see Clintons demise. Washington became even more vicious as political opponents of the President pursed

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Rhetorical Analysis ive been to the mountaintop - 1624 Words

Rhetorical Analysis: I’ve Been to the Mountaintop Martin Luther King, Jr. was the predominant leader of the Civil Rights Movement to end racial discrimination and segregation in the latter half of the twentieth century. As a world-renowned spokesperson advocating nonviolent protest, many of his speeches were centered on peaceful ways to change the unfair treatment and segregation of blacks. His hope was to use these methods of nonviolent protest so that one day all of God’s children, whites and blacks included, would live, and treat each other, as equals. On April 3, 1968, he delivered what would be his final speech, I’ve Been to the Mountaintop, in Memphis, Tennessee, at the Mason Temple (Church of God in Christ Headquarters).†¦show more content†¦He explains to his audience that when the Pharaoh wanted to prolong the period of slavery, all he had to do was keep the slaves fighting among themselves. But when the slaves came together, that was the beginn ing of getting out of slavery. Thus, the civil rights community must stay unified in order to achieve what they want. Still in the past, King next reminds his audience of their success in Birmingham, Alabama. Through these remarks, King restores their faith, telling them that they had done it once, so there was no reason why they couldn’t successfully protest again. To explain his intentions for how they should go about protesting this time, King first deems it necessary to reassure his audience of their First Amendment privileges that they should receive for living in the United States. To do so, he uses the rhetorical device of repetition for the third time by saying that â€Å"Somewhere I [he] read† about certain freedoms that all citizens should be granted—multiple indirect references to the Constitution’s Bill of Rights. At the end, he says, â€Å"Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right to protest for right† (King 4), bri lliantly adding an antanaclasis that further embellishes the rhythmic manner of his speech. He is simply appealing to logos again in this instance; by recalling words from one of the most important documents in the country’s history, he is providing factual justification for the nonviolent protests he is about to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Drinking Water Human Right Or Commodity Essay - 1683 Words

Drinking Water: Human Right or Commodity? Water, like food, is a necessity for human life that is used for many purposes such as agricultural, industrial, and domestic systems. While water is a common element around the world not all of it is clean and able to be consumed or used by humans. With only a percentage of the world’s water being clean and the use of water increasing, the availability of water around the world has become a common issue in the developing and even the developed world. This may be a smaller problem in areas close to clean water sources compared to areas far from a clean water source but, the availability of water is not strictly based on location, it also depends on the specific political and social needs and issues of the area as well. These all become issues that must be accounted for when deciphering whether water is a basic human right or a commodity and what action must be taken to aid the developing water systems in community’s that lack th em. 1. Human Right or Commodity? Whether water is a human commodity or basic human right has become a large problem around the world while dealing with the availability of clean drinking water in developing societies. If water is either recognized to be a right or a commodity, many complications come to these developing countries in several social and political aspects. A human right is a freedom and a right that belongs to everyone in the world. Water as a human right gives everyone the right to water asShow MoreRelatedAffirmative Debate: Acces to Drinking Water Essay676 Words   |  3 Pages000 children die every day from water related diseases. In fact, more lives have been lost after World War II due to contaminated water than from all forms of violence and war. This humanitarian catastrophe has been allowed to fester for generations. We must stop it.† [Herald Tribune] It is because I agree with Mikhail Gorbachev, that I must affirm today’s resolution. Resolved: Access to drinking water ought to be valued as a human right instead of as a commodity. The value I will be upholdingRead MoreWe Need to Slow Down Our Freshwater Consumption1251 Words   |  5 Pagesoutpaced the rate of human population growth. There is a need to slow down the rate of water consumption before it creates a huge problem. People can conserve water through the use of modern efficient electronic devices such as digital water meters at homes and industries and rain-dew irrigation system on farmlands to make water wastage by more than half. Governments around the world need to work on legislation to promote and educate its citizens on efficient use of fresh drinking water and the consequencesRead MoreDeveloping Effective Water Sector Policies1227 Words   |  5 Pagesiii) Policy Issues Developing effective water sector policies in most countries has been a hard task for the policy makers involved. This has been because of its unique physical properties, the complex economic characteristics and the important cultural features that come with the resource that distinguishes it from other natural resources. Other than this, water resource management has continued to present a lot of complicated administrative issues, and this is because it involves many considerationsRead MoreWater Is The Most Important Natural Source1255 Words   |  6 Pages1.0 Introduction Water is the most important natural source. There has been activism all over the world to attain governed pricing mechanisms and market transactions due to its mobility and centrality to sustenance of human life. The physical, conceptual, and social plasticity aspects of water as a resource create uncertainty with regard to handling and thus posing critical questions in response to use and management. In the last three-four decades, world’s economic institutions such as World BankRead MoreNotes On Commodities And Consumption1728 Words   |  7 Pages Commodities and Consumption There are many commodities in our life that plays an important part in our daily consumption. Such commodities link us to the people around the world who produce these for us. The purpose of this assignment is to choose a produced outside of the US, and write an essay by conducting research using sources such as use information directly from the store or company, academic articles/books, the Internet and personal interviews. The essay will answer questions about the locationRead MoreWater Is The Most Important Natural Source955 Words   |  4 PagesWater is the most important natural source. There has been activism all over the world to attain governed pricing mechanisms and market transactions due to its mobility and centrality to sustenance of human life. The physical, conceptual, and social plasticity aspects of water as a resource create uncertainty with regard to handling and thus posing critical questions in response to use and management. In the last three-four decades, global economic institutions such as the World Bank and InternationalRead MoreProblem with Privatization of Water in the Documentary Blue Gold: World Water Wars by Sam Bozo745 Words   |  3 PagesBlue Gold: World Water Wars I choose to watch the documentary by Sam Bozo â€Å"Blue Gold: World Water Wars†. In this movie author presents the problem with privatization of water, the corruption affiliated with water companies and the problems that arise around the world because of water scarcity. We all know that, where there is water, there must be life. Our planet is the only known planet with life and water on it, that is why we look for it in space. The drinking water is only three percent of theRead MoreThe Privatization Of Municipal And Bottled Water Sources2149 Words   |  9 PagesPrivatization of Water Different societies around the world have different moral codes, but the importance of water is valued and respected everywhere. Most if not all societies agree with the principles of human dignity and equality for all people. Water is the basis for human survival therefore, it can be the foundation for solidarity amongst societies and people. The ethical frameworks of utilitarianism, consequentialist, intrinsic, theistic, ecological, and water management are all examples ofRead MoreWater Management Practices : Privatization Of Municipal And Bottled Water Sources Using A Justice Oriented Ethical Framework2438 Words   |  10 Pagesimportance of water is valued and respected everywhere. Most if not all societies agree with the principles of human dignity and equality for all people. Water is the basis for human survival, which can unite and create solidarity between civilizations. Instead, water is dividing civilizations, causing tension over the precious resource. The primarily focus of this paper is on analyzing water management practices, specifically exploring privatization of municipal and bottled water sources usingRead MoreThe Prevention of Water Contamination: Mission Impossible?1503 Words   |  7 PagesWater is one of the most vital components of human life. It is a necessity, a precious resource that humans need to live, that is taken for granted every day. There is no possible way for life to be sustained on Earth without water – it just cannot happen. The human body itself is composed of almost eighty percent water: almost 95 percent of the human brain is water. It is common knowledge that pure water is the best water – for humans, and for plants and animals. Regardless of this piece of knowledge

Defining Politics and Democracy Essay - 1572 Words

Defining Politics and Democracy The word Politics is derived from the Greek word for city-state, Polis. Corporate, religious, academic and every other polity, especially those constrained by limited resources, contain dominance hierarchy and therefore politics. Politics is most often studied in relation to the administration of governments. Politics is the process and method of gaining or maintaining support for public or common action. Although it is generally applied to governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions including corporate, academic, and religious. Political science is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of†¦show more content†¦Karl Marx sees politics as merely the orgainised power of one class for oppressing another while Kate Millett sees politics as power-structured relationships,arrangements whereby one grop of persons is contolled by another. This shows how different people feel about politics and it shows that everyone has a differnt view on what politics means. My view is that politics is how different parties believe the county should be run, how different political views change how different people feel on politics, e.g. The old labour party had the views for the working man and the unions, and the conservatives was for the business man, but now the new labour party has the same views as the conservatives, making it almost impossible to tell the difference between the parties. This is called Convergence. There are many political parties in Britain but throughout the whole of England, there are three dominant political parties : Labour, Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. These are expanded on in the regions by the addition of the Scottish National Party in Scotland, Plaid Cymru in Wales and the various Unionist parties and Sein Fein of Northern Ireland. In terms of electoral success, Britain has frequently been referred as a two-party state; similar to America. In termsShow MoreRelated Americas Democracy Essay1091 Words   |  5 PagesAmericas Democracy The United States of America is a republic, or representative democracy. Democracy, a word that comes to us from Greek, literally means the people rule (Romance, July 8). This broad definition leaves unanswered a few important details such as who are the people, how shall they rule, and what should they rule on (July 8). Defining the answers to those questions means defining a model for a democratic system. William E. Hudson defines four such models in his book American DemocracyRead MoreExploring the Differences Between Liberal Democratic, Authoritarian and Totalitarian Political Systems1246 Words   |  5 PagesDemocratic, Authoritarian and Totalitarian Political Systems Defining political systems is a difficult thing to do as no single system is completely static, they often change dependant on things like war and trends in regimes, such as the recent insurgence in ‘liberal democracies’ means that the classifications of systems changes over time. The British Westminster system is considered to be a ‘liberal democracy’ however in the Second World War there were several powers exercisedRead Moreâ€Å"Democracy Is Popularly Conceived As Government Of The1547 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Democracy is popularly conceived as government of the people, for the people and by the people† (Hassan, 2003). The term is used to describe a political process by which all citizens and the nation have a direct involvement in the creation of running a country and creating the policies within it. Evidently it can be argued that political apathy is a serious threat to democracy directly. Contradictory to this representative democracy selects applicable individuals to allow them to be a voice forRead MoreDoes Religion Foster Democracy?1383 Words   |  6 PagesDoes religion foster democracy? This question has plagued many political scientists for decades. Carsten Ancker examines the theories of Samuel P. Huntington in her work â€Å"Religion and Democracy: A Worldwide Comparison.† In 1991, Huntington hypothesized that religion led to the institutionalization of democracy, especially Christianity. Huntington referenced the rise of democracies in the 70’s tha t were related to the spread of religion as well as earlier, when Protestantism was popular. In his bookRead MoreThe Status of Democracy in Thailand1626 Words   |  6 Pagesinvolved with politics, since then politics affairs not only belong to politicians or the ruler. As people have more participation in government’s projects, they started to challenge politicians and even the government and divided into two political movement groups: National United Front of Democracy against Dictatorship (UDD) as known as The Red shirt group and People’s Alliance for the Democracy (PAD) as known as The Yellow shirt group. It is ironic that both groups claim for democracy while theyRead More Communitarianism vs. Cosmopolitanism Essay1147 Words   |  5 PagesNormative Theories of Politics - Contrasting Cosmopolitan and Communitarian Approaches When looking at normative theories of politics, the main distinction is between cosmopolitanism and communitarianism. In this essay the term community shall refer to political communities, or more specifically, states. It is important to note that these political communities have been defined territorially, and not necessarily by culture, although this is taken for granted to an extent by communitarianismRead MoreNationalism and Democracy Essay1166 Words   |  5 Pageshorrors caused by nationalism seem to be at the opposite end of the spectrum from the promising ideal of democracy. As Ghia Nodia pointed out, many analysts view nationalism as â€Å"fundamentally antidemocratic† (3). What these anti-nationalists fail to realize is that nationalism has also called force heroism and even sacrifice throughout history. Numerous people have risked their lives to restore democracy and civil rights in their nations, when they could easily have chosen comfortable exile elsewhere.Read MoreModern Democratic Governments 920 Words   |  4 PagesAccording to the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy index map for 2012, nearly half of the world’s population was living under democratic governments. Democracy is spreading throughout the world, although growth has slowed, and many nations have drawn their political inspiration from the United States of America, which was one of the first to govern under a constitutional republic in the modern era. One of the more unique features of our government, which other countries have attempted to adoptRead MoreThe Key Characteristics Of Lasswell s Policy Orientation1591 Words   |  7 Pages ‘Policy Dismantling’ by Andrew Jordan, Michael W. Bauer and Christoffer Green-Pedersen, and lastly Nick Turnbull’s ‘Harold lasswell’s â€Å"problem orientation† for the policy sciences’. As per a literature review I will begin by first outlining the defining characteristics of L asswell’s policy orientation, then providing a summary of the four identified articles, after which a comparison and contrast will occur respective to each characteristic outlined. One of the aforementioned characteristics ofRead MoreThe Political System Of Democracy Essay1697 Words   |  7 Pagessystem of Democracy that has existed since the days of ancient Greece. When applied to the United States of America, two forms of Democracy are presented that clash together in their principles. This is of course, Elite Democracy and Popular Democracy. Through the analysis of the process of the Electoral College, the actions of politically charged people, and various reforms throughout history, we can see how Popular Democracy pales in comparison to the superior philosophy of Elite Democracy. Before

Reflection on the Research Process for Learning - myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theReflection on the Research Process for Learning Experince. Answer: This essay is going to reflect my learning from the research process that has been conducted by me in due course of the study. A research process is indeed helpful to develop expertise and cognitive idea pertaining to a topic. Hence, it has helped me develop a clearer and fathomer understanding of the learning that I have been studying for years. Through the research I have tried to develop my understanding thus demonstrating my learning arena. The research paper was about the cyber attacks and the malpractices through the cyber cells. In this matter of fact, it can be stated that the specific understanding pertaining to overall cyber crime and the global movement has been highly inducing for me in its basic terms. Before reflecting deep into the topic, I would rather prefer to develop my idea on LE (Learning Experience). Learning Experience: Learning experience is an interaction, course or a program, in which learning takes place- irrespective of the setting (traditional or non- conventional). The traditional setting for the learning is nothing but the class rooms, schools or other academic institutions. On the contrary, the non-conventional learning experience is conducted through non- institutionalized process. This is a case that has to be taken into certain account whether an individual wants to focus on the specific learning setting. However, standing on 2017, the non-conventional setting or the non- institutionalized setting is prioritized. As a matter of fact, this has to be taken into certain account that empirical understanding has been quite effective in developing practical concepts and ideas on any area of subjects for a learner. This is how, in modern study, the empirical learning experience is given priority. Since this is highly practicality oriented process, the entire concept has to be developed through the basic concept of learning. Value of Learning Experience: Followings are the values of learning experience: It develops practical concept on any subject It helps create professional conceptualization of the subject of study It involves fun learning process thus engaging maximum number of the learners. It develops the potential to choose the behavioral concept associated with the learning activities It helps change the individual behavior and his or her tendency to encapsulate the entire knowledge of the subject through practical implementation Service of learning Experience: In this concept it can be stated that the specific understanding has to be taken into certain consideration pertaining to the effective understanding of how the specific course would be settled. The procurement of specific understanding has to be developed through effective consideration of the learning method. However, it needs to be taken into certain account that the service of learning experience is quite helpful for the assimilation of the learning process and thought generation through practical implementation. In my case, I have been highly benefited with different segments for the specification of the issues where I would be developing my knowledge in compliance with my practical understanding. Course: In the course, my subject understanding on cyber security would help me develop a cognitive idea. It would further help me increase my social awareness as it has direct involvement in my social understanding. As a matter of fact, it has the direct impact upon the basic understanding of the process with its different consequence. However there has been a specific reference for the curse development as well. For instance, the way I have involved myself in the process of investigation has led to the generation of its view at par. However, this has been taken into certain consideration pertaining to the effective understanding where the entire course depended on the concept development process more that getting mark in the assessments. There takes place the difference between examination and assessment. Through the course, I have developed the idea regarding the types of cyber security crimes- sabotage and breach. It has also provided me ample scope to study on the regulations and laws a ssociated with the criminal activities in different countries. Program: Through the programs on the laws and regulations associated with cyber security crime, I have had practical knowledge on how this is mitigated and fought against. This is highly effective for the purpose of special investigation process. My research paper have actually helped me develop a time frame of my own where I can identify my strength regarding the subject and my weakness as well. For instance, while going through the theoretical approach, I was highly effective for the special understanding of the cases where this would be taken into certain consideration for the effective understanding of the issues. Future Career: My learning experience would definitely uphold the specific skills to find out how effective I would be for the development process. In this case, it needs to be taken into account that the entire understanding has to be developed through the practical implementation of my learning. In this process it has to be taken into certain understanding that the specific issue for the purpose would be highly impactful for career development. However, this would be highly effective for the general understanding of career development. Since I would prefer to choose my career depending on what I have learned in these days from the course and the programs, I would consider this topic and the research process highly impactful to determine how effectively I would go along with the changing mode of studies. The Learning Process: My learning process was stringently based on practical understanding cyber security and cyber crime. In this process I afforded to develop my thinking and calculating skill pertaining to web development and web analysis. In terms of web content analysis, I had to develop some certain skills on how the websites are hacked. Through the knowledge development process, I gradually started understanding the core concept. Application of Learning; In terms of application, I would consider myself and drive myself to ardent dedication for the specific learning method. In this aspect, the basic understanding has to be taken into certain understanding that the basic course has to be taken into specific case where the learning would be taken place. My application would be on the mitigation and restriction of cyber security issues. Reference: Bellman, S., Burgstahler, S. and Ladner, R., 2014. Work-based learning experiences help students with disabilities transition to careers: A case study of University of Washington projects.Work,48(3), pp.399-405. Fink, L.D., 2013.Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. John Wiley Sons. Fink, L.D., 2013.Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. John Wiley Sons. Kolb, D.A., 2014.Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. FT press. Nonis, S.A., 2014. CREATING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING EXPERIENCES FOR STUDENTS IN A BASIC INTERNATIONAL MARKETING COURSE.Patrick D. Fountain, p.114.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Emerging Trends and Applications in Information Communication Technolo

Questions: Demonstrate the ability to evaluate management practice using Organisational Behaviour theories and research and make practical recommendations (Evidence Based Management). Demonstrate the ability to conduct literature search and review. Demonstrate the ability to write in an academic style? Answers: Introduction The economic conditions of the present day market scenario are tough to deal with for any organization, along with the tough economic conditions; the competition in any market scenario on a global basis has increased exponentially in the past few years. It has been noted by top officials in the field of management that there is a need for the employees of various organizations to understand the goals of the organization. The individuals are working in the organization first needs to achieve the goals that have been set for them individually or on a group basis to achieve the higher order goals of an organization (Abston and Kupritz, 2011). This method increases the chances of achieving the organizational goals and in the process also increases the working efficiencies of the individuals, who are a part of the organization. This method of goal setting has been considered by many as a method of motivation for the employees of an organization. This essay sheds lights on the various proc esses of goal settings and the different types of goals that can be assigned to an individual or a group of individuals in the organization (Knies and Leisink, 2013). The goals shall also be determined based on the type of work that the individuals are involved in within the organization. The essay shall also highlight the various levels of goals that a person can achieve. The goals can be considered to be just basic goals or can also be some challenging goals, which acts as a source of motivation for the individuals in the organization. The essay shall also discuss the effects of feedbacks and how they are to impact the individuals in the organization. It should be noted that the feedback system is only for persons who are involved in the managerial processes of the organization (Schultz, 2006). Goal Setting Process The theory that is related to the process of Goal Setting is a well-known and established theory of motivation. This fact is evident from the various researches and application of the principles related to the process of goal setting in various organizations. The main point of interest of the theory is that it encourages individuals in pursuing a specific goal that shall be challenging and helps the individuals in performing better in their field of interest. It is as opposed to the idea of setting an easy goal for an individual and just asking them to do the best possible on their part. There have been various researches on the process of goal setting and their effects on the individuals (Krishnan, 2009). It has given rise to the various mechanisms that are involved in the process and the conditions that act as the boundary conditions for the goal setting process. It has been seen from previous researches that a concrete and challenging goals enhance the performance of an individual , as it focuses their attention on a fixed result of their persistence and effort. Their focus on a single objective enables then to develop themselves and their usage of the various strategies that are required for the completion of their goals (MA, 2015). It has been noted from previous researches that goal setting depends on the complexity of the task, the commitment towards the goal and the feedback that the individual receives for their work (Li and Wang, 2015). The researches that have been conducted on the process of goal setting also states that the process has not yet been made to be aligned with the policies and the practices of the organization. It is because, in an organization, the work that an individual is frequently responsible for is now being shared by a group (Kleingeld, van Mierlo and Arends, 2011). This development in an organization has led to further research on the process of setting goals. Till date, the only published report is a meta-analysis that had been conducted by Frink, OLeary-Kelly and Martocchio in the year of 1994. Their research stated that there is a positive effect of the setting of group goals on the performance of the group (Shahin and Mahbod, 2007). This result was concluded after they compared the impact on the group performance due to the setting of low goals or no goals at all. Thus from the various researches and previous works that have been done in the field of goal setting, it is being advised that the individuals and the groups that are working in the organization be assigned with specific and challenging goals (Chowdhry, 2012). It shall help the organization in improving its quality of service because the performance of the individuals and the groups that are working within the organization shall improve due to the process of goal setting (Matsui, Kakuyama and Onglatco, 1987). It is being advised that the goals that shall be set for the various individuals or group working within the organization be set depending on the plans which the company makes for the upcoming annual year. Types of Goals It is being proposed based on the theories of goal setting that the goals that are set for the individuals who are working at the managerial posts, be individualistic in nature, whereas, the goals that are being set for the non-managerial individuals in the organization be group goals (Tosti, 2006). From researches that have been conducted in the past by Matsui in the year of 1987, it has been observed that more than individual goals, people in the Japanese culture set more importance to the achievement of the group goals (Locke et al., 1989). It led to the conclusion of the fact that the productivity that an organization got when they set group goals was much more in comparison to the productivity that an organization go by setting individual goals only. Further research conducted by Kleingeld in the year of 2011 supported the fact that was put forth by Matsui (Kleingeld, van Mierlo and Arends, 2011). The term egocentric was introduced by Kleingeld to describe individual goals and stated that the performance level based on individualistic goals was less compared to the performance due to group-centric goals (Zetik and Stuhlmacher, 2002). The research indicated that there is a need for a both individual as well as group goals to maximise the level of performance in an individual . The conclusion of the study that was conducted by Kleingeld stated that the groups goals had a more positive effect on the performance of an organization rather than individual goals (Nguyen, Hoang and Jedrzejowicz, 2012). It also states that the effectiveness of the various individual goals can be increased and improved if they are to be made more group-centric instead of making them egocentric in nature. Thus based on the various studies and researches in the past, it is being advised to maximise the performance level of the various individuals (Johnson, Dickinson and Huitema, 2008). The individuals who are working in the organization, group-centric and individual goals should be set for the managerial staffs for achieving a higher performance level and the same should be applicable even for the individuals who are working in the non-managerial posts within the organization (Van Soelen, 2013). Level of Goals There have been a number studies and researches in the past that states that higher level and specific goals evoke the maximum level of effort from an individual working in the organization. The performance level of an individual improves and increases while trying to achieve a higher level and specific goals (Nicklin and Williams, 2011). Whereas, studies indicate that the effectiveness of achieving a goal that is vague or lower in nature i.e. not challenging for the individual does not improve the performance of an individual. Researches that has been conducted in the past by Mento, Steel and Karren in the year of 1987 or Tubbs in the year of 1986 all support the above-stated fact. There has been confusion regarding the terms goal level and goal difficulty. Goal difficulty is stating the probability in achieving a particular goal. A goal that only 10% of the organizational workforce can achieve is considered to be a more difficult goal than a goal that the rest 90% of the organizati onal workforce can achieve. Whereas, goal level is often correlated with the term goal difficulty but is considered to be the performance level that needs to be achieved while achieving a particular goal (Pidd, 2012). The study that has been conducted by Locke in the year of 1967 and 1982 simply states that the level of performance is directly related to the level of the goal that needs to be achieved. The study indicates that higher the level of the goal the higher the level of the performance, but the condition remains that the ability of the individual or the group who is trying to achieve the said goal is adequate to achieve the set goal (Cureu, Janssen and Meeus, 2013). Thus, from the studies that have been done in the past, it is being advised that there should be a mix of higher level and basic level goals for the individuals in the organization (Palomares, 2009). The higher level goals shall act as a motivating factor for the individuals and shall encourage them to improve their level of performance and, as a result, improve the performance and level of quality of the organization (Gmez-Izquierdo et al., 2015). The basic goals can be considered to confidence booster and shall also be used for improving the performance of the individuals who are not adept at achieving higher level goals. Interim Review and Feedback Review and Feedback is an important part of the process of goal setting. It is considered to be a major aspect of improving the performance of an individual or a group. The concept of Review and Feedback is based on the process of investigation of the actions of the individuals or groups in the task of achieving a set goal and providing them with the information based on their performance (Shahin and Mahbod, 2007). There are two types of feedback that one can receive. It can be individual feedback or it can also be a group feedback. But studies indicate that while working in a group a mixture of individual and group feedback is the best method of feedback. Studies conducted by Zander and Wolfe in 1964 and Zanjoc in the year of 1962 states that the feedback that consists of the group and individual performance reports tends to be more effective over a feedback that contained information regarding the performance of either the group of the individuals only. In the year of 1982 Campbell and Lord devised a method of establishing a relation between goals and feedback and the work that is put in by an individual in achieving the goals (Davis, 2005). This relation was devised from the theory of control theory. Thus, it is evident from the studies that the feedback and review system is necessary to motivate the individuals working to improve on their present state of performance in order to achieve their set goals (Wright, 2012). Conclusion It has been quite evident from all the researches that have been done in the past on the process of goal setting and the related theories. The organization can make use of the various processes that are involved in the goal setting process in so as to enhance the work quality, by improving the performance of the individuals who are working within the organization (Pekrun et al., 2014). 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